John H. Herrick
Executive Director Emeritus
Campus Planning





Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

July 16, 1984



Completion of this project has been possible only with the assistance of many people. The staffs of the Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization and the University Archives have been helpful at every turn.

Martha Ruth Jones, with her deep knowledge of the photographic resources of the University Archives, has produced useful evidence in resolving many questions.

An outstanding contribution has been made by Alicia C. Stokes in preparing the maps and in typing and checking the manuscript for publication.

May 20, 1984
John H. Herrick



EXPLANATORY NOTES............................................................................................................. vi

I. SYNOPSIS.............................................................................................................................. 1

II. PLACE NAMES...................................................................................................................... 1

III. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL FEATURES...................................................................... 3

1. THE LAKE.................................................................................................................... 3

2. THE SPRING & GROTTO.......................................................................................... 12

3. NEIL RUN & THE HOLLOW..................................................................................... 14

IV. ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS................................................................................................. 19

APPENDIX A................................................................................................................................ 23

APPENDIX B................................................................................................................................ 25



FIGURE 1 THE CAMPUS IN 1872.......................................................................................... 4


FIGURE 3 MIRROR LAKE AS SHOWN ON RESTORED MAPS, C.1878-1888.................. 7

FIGURE 4 MIRROR LAKE AS SHOWN ON 1892 MAPS..................................................... 8

FIGURE 5 THE ENLARGED MIRROR LAKE OF 1895......................................................... 9


FIGURE 7 NEIL RUN IN THE EARLY 1890'S...................................................................... 15

FIGURE 8 NEIL RUN ABOUT 1878...................................................................................... 16

FIGURE 9 THE CAMPUS IN 1897........................................................................................ 18



  1. Scope of Project

    Many Ohio State University students over the years have left the campus with fond memories of Mirror Lake and the Hollow. Older graduates will also recall with pleasure the spring which once fed the lake. These nostalgic feelings are shared by many residents and former residents of the community.

    This memorandum is written to relate the history of the development of the lake, the spring, and the ravine, and to record some of the activities and events that have occurred there over the years.

  2. Sources

    The memorandum is based to a considerable extent on information gleaned from research done in the preparation of Herrick, OSU Campus Buildings and Herrick, OSU Historical Maps, published by the Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization in 1979 and 1982, respectively. Additional research has been done, particularly in the Lantern files, but also in the minutes and annual reports of the Board of Trustees, in the publications of the Alumni Association, in the city newspapers, and to a limited extent in other sources.

  3. Citation of Sources

    In some instances, the text includes the complete bibliographical citation for the source of information. In other cases, an abbreviated citation is used. In the latter case, the abbreviation is followed by a colon and then the page number. The abbreviated citations are as follows:

    Cope -- refers to Cope, Alexis, 1870-1910, Volume I of History of the Ohio State University, edited by Thomas C. Mendenhall. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 1920.

    Herrick, Buildings -- refers to a five-volume, loose-leaf publication published under the title OSU Campus Buildings on December 31, 1979 by the Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization of the Ohio State University. Revisions were made on August 30, 1980, March 10, 1981, and October 31, 1981.

    Herrick, Maps -- refers to a two-volume, loose-leaf publication published under the title OSU Historical Maps on February 1, 1982 by the Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization of the Ohio State University.

    L -- The Ohio State Lantern, including the few issues known as the Wahoo.

    M -- The publication of the Ohio State University Association, currently known as the Ohio State University Monthly. It was formerly called The Ohio State University Quarterly.

    McC -- refers to McCracken, William C., The History of the Physical Plant of the Ohio State University. Columbus: (The author), 1942-47. A typewritten history of four volumes published in 1942, 1945, 1947, and 1947, respectively. This copy is in University Archives.

    References to McCracken's work may be abbreviated with the volume number followed by a colon and a page number. For example, McC 1:27 would refer to page 27 in McCracken's first volume.

    R -- Annual report of the Board of Trustees, the President, and other University officials. These reports under various titles are collected and bound by years in the University Archives.

    T -- Board of Trustees Minutes.

  4. Building and Map Numbers

    Since building names change from time to time, all buildings mentioned in this report are listed in the appendix and their identifying numbers from Herrick, OSU Campus Buildings are given.

    Maps are often referred to by a five-digit hyphenated number. These are the identifying numbers used in Herrick, OSU Historical Maps.


I.        SYNOPSIS

The original University campus, which was chosen in 1870, included a ravine extending westward from High Street. Through this ravine there flowed a stream which drained the area east of High Street, and which emptied into the Olentangy River. Numerous springs in the valley emptied into this stream.

There was a bog around a large spring on the north side of the valley south of the present University Library. In the spring of 1874, at the end of the first year of operation of the University, this bog was cleaned out and "pools of clear spring-water" were formed. These pools developed over the years into the present Mirror Lake.

The spring which fed the original lake was a source of drinking water for both the campus population and the people living nearby. Construction of a city sewer in the ravine in 1891 interrupted the flow of water from the spring until a portion of the sewer was rebuilt. Thereafter, the increasing coverage of the campus ground surface by buildings and paved areas and the increasing diversion of rain water into storm sewers resulted in the ultimate demise of the spring in the 1920's. Well water, river water, and city water are among the replacement sources used to feed the lake since the drying up of the spring.

Mirror Lake Hollow, as the ravine came to be called, and the area around the lake and the spring, became a center for a great variety of campus activities. Commencement exercises, May Fetes, May Suppers, concerts, dramatic performances, initiations into honorary societies, and the tossing of freshmen into the lake are among the many activities centered here.

Over the years, the Hollow has come to be defined by buildings on both sides. Within the valley, the steep banks have been eliminated by grading, the stream has been diverted into a sewer, and the floor of the valley has been improved by grading, plantings, and the installation of walks. In 1926, the Browning Amphitheater was dedicated; Ohio Staters Inc. is now raising money for a major rehabilitation of this facility.



In the Mirror Lake area are several features that have acquired names over the years. These include the lake itself, the valley in which the lake lies, the stream that once flowed through the valley, the spring that once supplied the water for the lake, the grotto built around the spring, the amphitheater constructed in the valley east of the lake, and the bubbling fountain at the east end of the lake.

  1. The Lake

    Before the enlargement of the lake in 1895, the spring, rather than the lake, was the feature of the campus most favored in the pages of the Lantern. I have seen only 18 references to the lake in the 21 years of its existence prior to 1895. In those instances, it was called the "lake", "the lakes", or "the lakelets". Once, in 1895, it was referred to as "the University lake". The first use of a formal name which has come to my attention was in the spring of 1896, when both the Makio and the Lantern (April 29) used the name "Mirror Lake". I have seen no later reference to the lake by any other name, except that a 1905 letter from the Olmsted Brothers, a Massachusetts firm of landscape architects, called it "Spring Lake."[1]

  2. The Spring & Grotto

    The spring which fed the lake and the grotto built around the spring have been almost invariably called the "spring" and the "grotto" in the sources which I have examined. The only two exceptions I have noted were in the Lantern, which spoke of the "O.S.U. Spring" on October 4, 1905 and of the "University Spring" on October 5, 1910.

    Long after the spring had dried up, the Lantern continued to refer to events "at the spring". For example, on May 23, 1941, it reported the Sphinx initiation ceremony "at the spring". The place could have been at the Memorial Fountain or at the grotto where the spring had been.

  3. The Hollow

    The ravine in which Mirror Lake lies has generally been called the "Hollow" or "Mirror Lake Hollow" since 1909. In 1895-96, I have seen one reference to the "ravine" and two to the "valley". The 1905 Olmsted Brothers letter cited above used the name "Spring Lake Valley". From 1909 to the present time, I have seen approximately 230 references to this ravine. About 220 of them spoke of the "Mirror Lake Hollow" or the "Hollow." On four occasions in 1911 and 1912, the Lantern spoke of "Mirror Lake Dale," and in 1927 it referred once to "Mirror Lake Valley." In 1978, the Lantern introduced the name "South Oval" in connection with the Renaissance Festival, and has repeated the name at least five times since. However, the name "Mirror Lake Hollow" reappeared in at least two issues in 1982.

    Two spots bordering the ravine near the lake were sometimes referred by name. The high ground south of the lake was called "Observatory Hill" and the corresponding spot on the north side, where some commencements were held, was referred to as "the grove" or as "Library Hill".

  4. The Stream

    The stream which ran through the ravine is seldom mentioned by name in the sources used in the preparation of this report, including the maps of the time. It is sometimes called merely "the run" or "the brook". Formal names occasionally seen include "Neil Run", "Neil's Run", and "Indianola Run".

  5. The Amphitheater

    The Browning Amphitheater, which was buiit in 1926, has seldom been called anything except the "Amphitheater" or "Browning Amphitheater". Other names which have occasionally been noted are "Mirror Lake Amphitheater", "Hollow Amphitheater", "open air theater", "Browning Theatre", "Browning Outdoor Theatre", and "Greek Theatre".

  6. Memorial Fountain

    The bubbling fountain at the east end of the lake was first called the "Memorial Fountain" and this name is on the bronze rim of the fountain. The name "Wishing Well" was encountered once each in 1945, 1962, and 1973, "Mirror Lake Fountain" once in 1947, and the name "Fountain" once in 1978.


III.   Development of Physical Features
  Text Box: "The quiet serenity of Mirror Lake is a welcome change from the bustle of campus life .... The blase student may sneer at tradition but who will ever forget…..Mirror Lake at night.... " Lantern, Sept. 25, 1959
    1.1 Origin and Early Development

It is commonly believed, and has been reported in the Lantern from time to time over the years, that Mirror Lake was in existence on the campus when the University was established in 1870. This appears not to be true.

The earliest pertinent maps of the campus area now available were published in Caldwell's Atlas in 1872.[2] These maps are included in Herrick, OSU Historical Maps as Maps 187-02 and 187-09.

Also, in 1872 a committee of the Board of Trustees of the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, as the University was then named, prepared a partial campus map which is designated in OSU Historical Maps as Map 187-03.

Map 187-03, the Board committee map, appears to have been traced in part from one of Caldwell's Maps (187-09). In any event, both maps are identical with respect to the Mirror Lake area.

Figure 1 is a reproduction of part of Map 187-03, which probably was prepared by a Board committee for presentation to the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees which convened on January 1, 1873. It shows the stream beside which Mirror Lake was later to be constructed. The map shows a barn which had been constructed in 1871 on the site of the present Women's Field House and the College (University Hall) then under construction. It also shows in broken lines two proposed streets, Neil Avenue, which was later built, and a roadway from High Street, which was never constructed on the alignment shown.


The most important aspect of Figure 1 for our purposes is that it does not show any lake.

The absence of a lake at the beginning is also supported by a story in the Columbus Daily Dispatch on April 18, 1872, reporting on a trip to the Campus on April 17 by a reporter. His account reads in part as follows:

Sixty or seventy acres of ground on the south front is [sic] intended to be laid out in drives and a botanical garden. Through this runs a small stream, fed by springs, and the valley here is well adapted for a fish-pond, with a limited amount of work.

Note that no mention is made of any existing lake or pond. Had there been any body of water in existence, it is reasonable to assume that the reporter would have mentioned it rather than point out the potential for developing one.

The first steps toward the creation of the lake appear to have been taken in the spring of 1874. McCracken (McC 1:34) states that:

In the Spring of 1874, Mr. Harding the Lawn Keeper, cleaned up the Lake and what Mr. Sullivant was pleased to call the surroundings; "The Bog"; for the first time since the College had possession of the Farm.

McCracken was writing in the early 1940's, at the close of his 60 years of employment by the University. He undoubtedly relied on conversations with other long-time employees and on memories of observations and conversations over the long period since his initial employment in 1886.

The Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Trustees shows that the work indicated by McCracken was indeed done in 1874. In his report as Secretary of the Board of Trustees, dated November 20, 1874, Joseph Sullivant stated on page 663 that:

. . . the unsightly and unwholesome bog around the springs has been cleaned out, and the channels opened and straightened; pools of clean, pure spring-water have been formed, and the place now presents an agreeable and inviting appearance ....

Note that McCracken stated that the "Lake" and the surrounding area were cleaned up, while Sullivant reported that it was the bog around the "springs" that was improved. Sullivant's account was contemporary; McCracken was writing some 70 years later about an event that occurred 12 years before he came to the campus. Since Sullivant was writing an official report to the Governor, and would be expected to write with care, it is significant that he spoke of the formation of pools of water and not improvement of an existing body of water. For these reasons, Sullivant's account appears to be the more accurate.

It appears that what is now known as Mirror Lake emerged during the next two decades from the "pools of clean pure spring-water" made in 1874.

A different explanation of the origin of the lake began to emerge at the time of the University's semi-centiennial in 1920. Joseph N. Bradford, who was then the University Architect, wrote that the water from the spring was used during the construction of University Hall (1871-73) for "the operation of a mill for sawing the stone" used in the building (M 11:31 June 1920). Two years later, a reporter, following an interview with Bradford, wrote in the Lantern (3/3/1922) that "water from the lake ... was used to turn a sawmill that cut the stone .... Another Lantern reporter on December 21, 1923 expanded the story by explaining that water from the spring was stored up during the night and then used the next day to operate the sawmill. Finally, Harriet Day Collins wrote in 1931 that "A spot just south of the Library Hill was hollowed out for the mill. After the building was finished the contractors failed to refill the basin. That old depression today is Mirror Lake...." (M 22:327 May 1931)

This explanation, which emerged 50 to 60 years after the fact, does not square with the account published in the Columbus Daily Dispatch on April 18, 1872 that "A steam engine is being put into position here [in the valley] to furnish power for sawing the stone ... and to force water up the declivity for use during the construction."

It would appear that the Dispatch account, published after a visit to the site on the preceding day, would carry greater weight than the hearsay explanations of a half century later.

Details of the early development of the lake are not clear. The 1874 reference (p.5) to "pools of clean, pure spring-water" suggests more than one body of water, but Bradford many years later recalled only one lake in the late 1870's (Figure 3, Map 187-08). The Lantern, prior to the creation of one large lake in 1895, vacillated between the singular and the plural. References to one lake were made in 1881, 1887, 1889, 1891, and 1895. In 1881, it spoke of the "lake," but it mentioned "three lakes" in 1882, "lakelets" in 1886, and "lakes" in 1893 and 1894. A plausible explanation is that the plural was used to refer to a body of water with relatively distinct arms or bays, and did not necessarily imply completely separate and discrete bodies of water. It is possible that the 1874 "pools of clean pure spring-water" were initially connected in such a way that they could be referred to collectively as the "lake".

Three commercially published maps showing the lake prior to 1895 have been found; one by Graham (187-06) in 1876, one by Ward Brothers (188-05) in 1889, and the third by Mills (189-03) in 1893. The lakes as depicted on these three maps are shown in Figure 2. All are drawn at the same approximate scale,[3] and an outline of the present lake is included for comparison.

The three maps shown in Figure 2 were commercially published. The campus was out in the country some distance from the city, and it is not likely that the publishers of these maps were frequent visitors to the campus. In any event, the maps are so at variance with what is known from the other sources that they cannot be accepted as accurate. In this connection, see especially Note 2 to Figure 2; the Ward Brothers map (188-05) is not only grossly inaccurate, but probably fraudulent as well.

In the mid-1920's, Joseph N. Bradford, University Architect, drew three campus maps from memory--187-08 (c.1878), 188-01 (1885-87), and 188-03 (1888).[4] The Monthly for February 15, 1948 carried a map (188-02) of the campus in 1886. Authorship of this last map is not known. It was not Bradford, but it could have been based on one of Bradford's mid-1920 restored maps. The lake portion of these four maps, along with the December 1983 lake, are shown on Figure 3. Bradford's three maps are in substantial agreement as to the length of the lake from east to west and its general shape from 1878 to the mid-1880's. The shape of the lake is consistent with the hypothesis that it was formed by combining two or more smaller bodies of water such as the 1874 "pools of clean, pure spring-water". Map 188-02 shows an 1886 lake substantially the same as the lake shown on the Bradford maps.


Notes to Figure 2

1. Map 187-06 was copied from Graham's Map of the City of Columbus, Ohio, 1876, a copy of which is in the Columbus and Ohio Room of the Pubilc Library of Columbus and Franklin County.

2. Map 188-05 was copied from Ward Brothers Map of the City of Columbus, Ohio, 1889. This is an exact copy of Map 188-04, which was a proposal for the future campus development prepared by Herman Haerlin, and accepted by the Board of Trustees on June 19, 1888. According to McCracken, (McC 1:82) Haerlin’s map disappeared from the wall in University Hall, and a copy of it appeared a year later as part of the Ward Brothers Map (188-05) representing existing conditions in 1889.

3. Map 189-03 carries the title O.S.U. Student's Map of Columbus Ohio Drawn from City Engineer's Map by Wilbur T. Mills, 1893. It was taken from Volkmor, Elmer L., ed., Student’s Handbook - Ohio State University. Columbus: J.L. Trauger, Printer and Publisher, 1894. A copy of this handbook is in the University Archives.

4. The December 1983 map was supplied by the Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization.


In the spring of 1886, the basin of the "central" lakelet was considerably enlarged (L: 3/12/1886). This may be reflected in Bradford's Map 188-01, but possibly not in his 1888 map (188-03).

We have two reasonably accurate maps from the early 1890's--Map 189-01, which was drawn about 1891 or 1892, and Map 189-02 dated December 1892. Both maps show about the same outline and size for the lake. Figure 4 shows the lake from these two maps, along with the December 1983 outline.


Maps 189-01 and 189-02 show a lake considerably larger than that on the restored maps in Figure 3. This reflects the 1886 expansion and possibly other modifications to which no reference has been found.

    1.2 The 1895 Modifications

The year 1895 was a crucial one in the history of the lake and the hollow. At its meeting on April 10, 1895 the Board of Trustees considered a letter dated February 6, 1895, from Mr. Emerson McMillin of New York City. McMillin offered to donate $10,000 to equip an observatory, if the University would "erect a suitable building" to house it. This offer was promptly accepted by the Board, and plans for an observatory building were approved.

At the next meeting of the Board of Trustees (May 9, 1895), a second letter from McMillin (dated May 4, 1895) was received. In this communication, McMillin offered to give $5,000 for construction of the observatory building on condition that the University spend "an equal sum on improving the grounds in the immediate vicinity of the observatory site; these improvements to include [a] driveway south of the proposed building and a botanical garden in the valley north of the building".

The site of the observatory[5] was on the high ground directly east of Pomerene Hall and directly south of the lake.

In addition to requiring the expenditure of $5,000 on grounds improvement, including a driveway south of the building (now part of W. Twelfth Avenue), McMillin suggested abandonment of the University's plan to construct a roadway in the valley alongside the lake.

The University, in response to McMillin's offer, constructed the driveway south of the observatory, graded and seeded the slope between the ravine and the observatory, tripled the size of the lake, and erected rustic bridges over the lake.[6]

Alexis Cope, who served as Secretary of the Board of Trustees from 1884 to 1904, later observed that McMillin's objection to the roadway in the valley probably "saved the valley--the most beautiful and attractive part of the entire campus, from being converted into a highway".[7]

The outline of the lake as enlarged in 1895 is shown in Figure 5, along with an outline of the present lake for comparison. Two islands created in the 1895 project are shown and locations of rustic bridges over the lake are indicated by asterisks. (Also, see middle picture on Frontispiece.) The west end of the lake was substantially the same distance from Neil Avenue as the west end of the present lake. Thus, the 1895 lake extended some distance east of the present lake.


    1.3 The 1920 Modification

The next major change in the size and shape of the lake came in 1920. A storm on August 12, 1918, uprooted many large trees around the lake (L: 8/14 & 9/18/1918). In the summer of 1920, the area was cleaned up, the islands and the rustic bridges over the lake were removed, and the shape and size of the lake were changed.

Figure 6 shows in the lighter line the 1895 lake and the two islands, with the 1920 lake superimposed upon it. While there have been minor changes from time to time, the size and shape of the lake remain substantially the same today as after the improvements in 1920.


    1.4 The 1935 Improvements

In 1935, Mirror Lake was again rejuvenated as a project of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). Improvements made at this time included:

  1. Construction of a stone wall around the lake to prevent erosion of the banks (L: 3/28/1935)
  2. Paving of the bottom of the lake with brick (L: 5/29/1935)
  3. Drilling of a new well (L: 11/6/1935)
  4. Construction of a new dam at the outlet of the lake (L: 9/27/1967)
    1.5 Supply of Water for Lake

In the beginning, the water in the lake came from springs, chiefly the one described in the next section of this report.

A city sewer was constructed in the ravine in 1891, and the workmanship and materials were so inferior that the spring dried up. The problem was corrected and the lake was restored. Repeatedly thereafter the level of the water in the lake would drop because of failure of the spring, and then rise again after a short time.[8] On April 16, 1924, the Lantern observed that the lake "bids fair to become one of the ugly marks on the grounds unless something is done…soon...."

The spring was reported to have dried up and the development of an artificial water supply was discussed by the Lantern on May 19, 1925. On July 9 of the following year, the Lantern reported that the spring was "entirely dry" and that the lake was "drying up again ... " The spring came back to life in the fall, but the relief was only temporary (L: 11/10/1926).

The class of 1927 came to the rescue by selecting as its memorial project the rejuvenation and beautification of Mirror Lake. They proposed a drilled well east of the lake to replace the spring as the source of water for the lake, and the development of a bubbling fountain between the well and the lake. Their plans were approved by University Architect Bradford, and class members were assessed $5.00 each to build up the memorial fund. (L: 1/19/1927) The classes of 1929 and 1930 later contributed to the fund.

A cloudburst on May 18, 1927, produced more water than desired. The lake spread to the east side of High Street. The water had largely receded by the 20th, but the spring was again bubbling vigorously and the lake had been flushed free of all debris (L: 5/19 & 5/20/1927).

Work on the rejuvenation of the lake area began in the late summer of 1927 (L: 8/26 & 12/13/1927), but was not completed until late 1930 (L: 10/22/1930). Major components of the project were:

  1. The drilling of a well east of the lake, equipped with an electric pump, to replace the spring as the major source of water for the lake. The well was covered by a small well house.
  2. Construction of a bubbling fountain fed by the well and overflowing into the lake. The fountain was surrounded by a semi-circular area of stone pavement and was flanked by two stone benches. This fountain remains in place today. The bronze rim of the fountain carries the words "MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN GIFT OF THE CLASSES OF 1927, 1929, 1930." (See lower left on bottom picture on Frontispiece.)

Unfortunately, the new well produced sulphur water, and the Lantern complained editorially (April 28, 1936) that "although the service department did a most excellent job of changing the appearance of the old unsightly lake it created a worse condition by turning sulphur water into the lake."

In 1960, Professor Caley of the Chemistry Department, developed a way of treating the well water chemically to remove the sulphur odor (L: 2/12 & 8/25/1960). His solution was only partially successful, and a decade later a fountain was installed in the center of the lake to aerate the water (L: 7/16/1970). This fountain was fed from the Olentangy River, via the Power Plant, rather than from the well. It projected three jets of water upward in the center of the lake. Underwater lights provided illumination at night. The original fountain was soon wrecked by vandals, and was replaced in mid-summer (L: 7/16/1970).

The use of Olentangy River water brought new problems. Algae flourished and pollution of the water was a health hazard. One student, who swam in the lake, contracted tetanus (L: 6/l/1970).

In 1972, the fountain was abandoned, according to Charles Busch, who was the engineer in charge. City water replaced river water as the major supply for Mirror Lake (L: 3/30/1972).

A year later, condensate water from air conditioning equipment in Pomerene Hall was introduced to supplement city water and spring water to maintain the level of the lake (L: 4/20/1973).

A new fountain, with a jet 25 to 50 feet high, was placed in the lake in 1977 and was put into operation in early August (L: 8/5/1977). The pump was replaced in 1978 by a more powerful one, which projects a jet of water 52 feet high (L: 10/17/1978). The 1978 installation is still operating, and is successful in controlling algae and maintaining the quality of the water, according to Busch (See bottom picture on Frontispiece).

  Text Box: "Of all the places on campus, none is so beautiful and none possesses such a halo of tradition and romance as Mirror Lake and the Spring. Campus activities might rightly be said to center at this peaceful, shaded spot. There the most sacred traditions are observed. It is at that place where the greatest student honors are bestowed". Lantern, May 26, 1922

The spring,[9] which for many years supplied much of the water for Mirror Lake, is reported to have been a factor in the choice of the site of the University. In this connection, Cope (34) wrote as follows:

It is related that while the Board was on a tour of inspection of the various sites proposed for the College, they were taken to the spring of the Neil homestead, now the University campus, where they drank of the pleasant waters. Mr. Keller, a German member from Fairfield County, after taking several long refreshing draughts, seated himself on the ground and said: "Shentlemens, it’s hard to get a Dutchman away from a spring like that".

Whether this story be true or not, there can be no doubt that the availability of an adequate supply of good drinking water would have been major consideration in the selection of the site for the campus.

For many decades this spring was the favorite spot on campus with students, and it was not until the closing years of the century that the lake began to compete for their favor.

The spring, and later the lake, have been remembered by countless students as romantic places on campus, or as places for recreation or quiet relaxation. However, the spring also served a very practical purpose, namely as the source of drinking water for many decades. Before the days of drinking fountains in buildings, students and faculty alike would go to the spring for a drink of water. Students going to and from the dormitories, near the present Hamilton Hall, passed the spring, and no doubt often paused for a drink of spring water.

In the early days, as recalled by Bradford (M 11:31 June 1920), the spring water flowed from the ground with no basin, and there was no cup. It was necessary to get down on hands and knees to get a drink. Later, a stone grotto, with a stone floor, was built over the spring, and the spring water flowed from a large sewer tile set on end. This grotto was constructed in the spring of 1886, along with the enlargement of the lake and other improvements (L: 3/18/1886).

The spring also provided water for many residents of the University area. Bradford, in the 1920 article cited above, reported that it was necessary to boil Columbus city water for drinking purposes, and that people by the hundreds came to the University spring with their containers to get water, especially in the early morning and about sundown. Many enterprising boys put the water into bottles and jugs and sold it to householders in the area, many of them regular customers.

At least one adult sought to exploit the commercial potential of the spring. The Board of Trustees on January 16, 1908 denied the request of J.M. Allen that he be allowed to purchase the right to carry away the spring water between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m.

In 1881, a windmill was erected on the north side of the lake to pump water to University Hall (R 1881:11). McCracken (1:19) observed that this installation was unsuccessful, but the windmill remained in place at least until 1888 (L: 12/7/1888).

The Lantern on May 20, 1891 reported that a new basin for another spring was being constructed, and on June 17 announced that the grotto for the new spring had been completed. This new spring and grotto were approximately 100 feet east and slightly south of the original spring and grotto. This location would be some 50 feet east and slightly north of the Memorial Fountain now at the east end of the lake. (See top picture on Frontispiece for both the 1886 and the 1891 grottos.)

Bradford in notes written on file envelopes in Photo Archives noted that the east spring was a failure and soon abandoned. He noted also that the east grotto was removed, but gives no date.

The original grotto on the north side of the lake was replaced in 1896 by a new grotto financed by a gift of $1000 from Louis Siebert (L: 6/18/1896), who also provided much of the supervision of the construction. This grotto was constructed of large pieces of clinker-like limestone brought from Yellow Springs, Ohio. The grotto had a concrete floor, and a marble basin was provided to contain the spring water (M 11:31 June 1920). This grotto later collapsed, but the stones remain at the foot of the hill, about 40 feet northwest of the bubbling fountain.

In appreciation of Siebert's gift, the Trustees provided a small stone marker east of the grotto (R 1896:20). This stone marker was made of red sandstone, and most of the lettering has flaked off. The letters and parts of letters that remain today are encircled in the following copy:

Siebert's stone marker: This tablet commemorates the thoughtful generosity of Mr. Louis Siebert, of this city, who greatly enlarged and beautified this spring 1896. Honest water, that never left man i' the mire.

The last sentence in this inscription was not in the Board's wording (R 1896:20), but was included on the stone. McCracken (1:141), writing from memory, uses "which" instead of "that," but the fragmentary letters now remaining do not support him.

In 1891, the city constructed a large brick sewer generally along the course of Neil Run. This sewer passed along the south side of the lake, about 200 feet south of the spring. According to McCracken (1:105 ff), the work was not properly done. The excavation was not kept dry, the bricks were laid in water, and the quality of the mortar was not in accordance with the specifications. As a result the spring and lake were dry by the end of July (R 1891:16, 96). At the University's insistence, the portion of the sewer in the vicinity of the lake and spring was rebuilt, and the flow of water from the spring was restored by December of 1892 (L: 12/2/1892).

The Lantern on May 2, 1900 reported that the flow of water in the spring was again decreasing. This was apparently a temporary condition, since the flow in 1908 was sufficient to cause J.M. Allen to seek permission to collect the spring water for sale (T: 1/16/1908).

In October 1909, the campus was again concerned that the spring might be failing (L: 10/13 & 10/20/1909). By December, the water in the basin had dropped to six inches below the rim, and the Lantern claimed that newspapers all over Ohio had announced that the spring had gone dry (L: 12/21/1910).

In 1911, the Lantern (September 20) reported that the spring was again dry, but the flow was back to normal a month later (L: 10/25/1911).

This same pattern was reported in 1912, and the Lantern (October 9, 1912) noted that the spring had a tendency to go dry during the summer. The spring apparently revived, and the Lantern on October 1, 1913, reported that students and townspeople were again using the water.

Nine years later, the trouble recurred, and the spring was reduced to a trickle following dry weather (L: 11/13/1922). The flow was restored a few days later, after a rain (L: 11/16/1922). This cycle was repeated. The Lantern reported that the spring was drying up on August 7, 1925 and July 9, 1926, but that it was back up on November 10, 1926.

Thus the spring gradually died. The date of its expiration was not noted by the Lantern, but it was reported on May 20, 1927, that the flow was up following a cloudburst.

In the meantime, plans for a new source of water for Mirror Lake were being formulated. The Lantern on May 19, 1925 mentioned the need for an "artificial water supply". The class of 1927 raised money for Mirror Lake improvements including the drilling of a well to replace the spring, and the classes of 1929 and 1930 added to the fund. Work began in the summer of 1927 and was completed in late 1930 (See page 16).

  Text Box: "it is said that a co-ed has not really been to the University unless she has been kissed in Mirror Lake Hollow to the accompaniment of twelve strokes of Orton Hall’s chimes". Lantern, July 20, 1951

During the dying years of the spring, the Lantern and others frequently speculated on the cause of the failure. Underground diversion of the water was the cause most often mentioned. A further explanation would seem to be that the supply of underground water was reduced as more buildings and streets were constructed. The rain that fell on these hard surfaces was drained off through an increasingly extensive system of storm sewers, instead of sinking into the ground where it would support a spring.


Mirror Lake was constructed along the north side of a stream, which will be called Neil Run in this report.[10] This stream flowed westward through the ravine between the present W. Twelfth Avenue and the Oval, and continued beyond Neil Avenue to the Olentangy River. Figure 1 on page 4 shows the course of this stream in 1872, before Mirror Lake was created. Figure 7 shows the stream in the early 1890's as depicted on Map 189-01. Present-day buildings have been added on Figure 7.


Figure 7 must not be considered definitive with respect to locations. Map 189-01, which was used to locate the lake and the stream, was presumably prepared for use by the farm staff in the operation of the University farm; it was not prepared by a surveyor and should not be considered as precise with respect to sizes and locations of the features shown.

The course of the stream is not the same on Figures 1 and 7, and it is still different on other maps. The general configuration, however, is the same on all available maps.

Attention is called to the location of the lake on Figure 7. The dot on the north shore of the lake represents the spring which fed the lake. A short stream carried the lake water to Neil Run.

Neil Run branched in the vicinity of the present Ohio Union. Both branches provided drainage for the area east of High Street. The ravine now extending from North Fourth Street and Iuka Avenue southwest along Iuka to East Sixteenth Avenue marks the course of one branch; there are no obvious vestiges of the other.

The course of Neil Run through the campus was changed at least once, and possibly several times. Differences in stream configuration on the early maps of the campus may indicate changes in the routing of the run. However, since many of these maps were drawn decades later from memory or were drawn by people not intimately associated with the University, it is possible that these differences resulted from faulty memory or inaccurate delineation rather than from actual changes in the stream itself. The Board of Trustees on July 26, 1876 requested Professor McFarland:

to make an examination and survey of the run .... with a view toward the shortening and improvement thereof, and that he make an estimate of the cost thereof ....

It is not known with certainty what changes in Neil Run resulted from this action, but the Farm Manager's report for the year ending October 31, 1880, reported that some minor improvements had been made and then went on to explain as follows:

The minor improvements…consisted in straightening and diking the water-course that crosses the farm from east to west, and which frequently overflows on account of the immense volume of water thrown into it from High Street during heavy rains; in filling the old channel of this stream, abandoned a few years ago on account of the straightening of its lower end….[11]

It is not unlikely that "straightening of its lower end" "a few years ago" resulted from the Board's 1876 action, and that subsequent work in 1880 included filling the old channel, and diking the channel. Just where these improvements took place is not clear. The reference to "lower end" suggests that the first improvement occurred west of Neil Avenue. The reference to overflow of water from High Street suggests that the 1880 improvements were made east of Neil Avenue.

A bridge across the stream at Neil Avenue was constructed before 1875 (T: 5/5/1875). East of Neil Avenue small rustic bridges spanned the stream. Bradford's 1878 map (Figure 8) shows a footbridge in the vicinity of College Road west of the present Ohio Union.

The Lantern reported on March 18, 1886, that two more rustic bridges had been constructed, and Cope in his 1887 report as Secretary of the Board of Trustees[12] stated that "a rustic bridge has been built across the stream...."

Photograph X 2388[13] in Photo Archives appears to show the new bridge to which Cope refers, and shows also the remains of an old bridge which may be the one shown on Bradford's map. However, positive proof is not possible.


Figure 8 reproduces Map 187-08 prepared in the mid-1920's by Bradford to show the campus about 1878. Note the pond in the north branch of Neil Run. Bradford did not show this pond on any of his other restored maps (188-01 & 188-03), nor does it appear on any other map of the period now available.

William C. Mills, who became secretary of the Ohio State Archaeology & Historical Society (now Ohio Historical Society) in 1898, recalled in 1912 (L: 11/20/1912) that "the old swimming hole" which was about three feet deep, was near a sycamore tree at the junction of the two streams. Either this was a different pond, or the memory of Bradford or Mills was faulty with respect to the location of the pond. Perhaps both were wrong.

It is possible that the large, truncated sycamore now at the northwest corner of the Ohio Union is the sycamore to which Mills referred, but proof of this is not now possible. In any event, this present tree is in the general vicinity of the old pond.

In 1891 the city of Columbus constructed a large brick sewer to carry storm water to the Olentangy River, and Neil Run disappeared. However, according to Mills (L:11/20/1912) water continued to flow in the old stream bed following heavy rains. In fact, he stated that sometimes the surface water was so high that street cars could not operate on High Street.

There are no remaining vestiges of Neil Run on the campus east of Neil Avenue. On the west side, the ridge extending from the Water Resources Building to the river covers the sewer which replaced Neil Run.

Physical changes in the Hollow, other than those related to the spring, the lake, Neil Run, and the sewer, are usually not mentioned in University records or publications. The original Botanical Hall, which was completed in 1884, stood directly in front of the present Faculty Club, on the edge of the Hollow. In 1896 the greenhouses were enlarged by an extension behind the building into the Hollow (Herrick, Buildings: Report H 114). Flower beds, cold frames, and similar installations associated with the greenhouse were also in the Hollow.

As a result of the agreement between McMillin and the University with respect to the construction of the Observatory (see p. 8), the slope south of the lake was graded and seeded, and a road was constructed across the ravine from a point east of Orton Hall to Neil Avenue opposite where the Botany & Zoology Building now stands (R: 1895-6:20). This road, which has since disappeared, is shown in Figure 9.

The ravine south of Orton Hall was also graded at about the same time (L: 6/18/1896). There were undoubtedly similar projects over the years, and fill dirt was brought in to eliminate any steep edges of the ravine and to smooth out the floor of the Hollow. An extensive system of walks has been developed, and flower beds have come and gone. These improvements, for the most part, are not mentioned in the records of the University.


In 1909-1910 the original Ohio Union, now called the Student Services Building, was constructed on the south edge of the Hollow. In 1917, this building was expanded further into the Hollow, and a year later a temporary kitchen was added, which extended into the Hollow. This kitchen was demolished three years later. (See Herrick, Buildings: Report 085 for details.)

In 1919 a golf course was opened on campus (L: 7/16/1919). The late Howard E. Wentz, who served as a caddy on this course, described this course in a letter to me dated May 3, 1973 and provided an accompanying map (both in University Archives). The first tee was back of Page Hall and the green was in the Hollow southeast of Orton Hall. The second fairway ended at the east end of Mirror Lake, and the third east of the Observatory. It has not been determined when this golf course was abandoned.

When the campus was purchased in 1870, there was a log and frame house standing southwest of Orton Hall at a location which cannot be precisely determined from available records. This building, which was referred to as the "janitor's house," burned in 1884. (See Herrick, Buildings: Report H 005.)

The Browning Amphitheater was dedicated in 1926 (L: 5/26/1926) on the south slope and floor of the Hollow southwest of the Faculty Club and southeast of the lake. Prior to this time, temporary bleachers were used for seating for plays and other events in the Hollow (L: 9/27, & 11/29/1911; 5/l/1912). Earlier Shakespearean plays presented by the Browning Society had been staged on the north shore of the lake and the audience had been seated on the hillside south of the lake. In 1984 Ohio Staters, Inc. announced plans for a $100,000 renovation of the Amphitheater facility.

In May 1933 the construction of College Road across the upper end of the Hollow was proposed (Map 193-23). The exact date of construction has not been determined, but it was done by 1936 (Map 193-27).

During the enrollment bulge following World War II, temporary classrooms and offices were placed in the upper end of the Hollow south of Page and Hagerty halls. They were erected in 1947 and removed four years later (Herrick, Buildings: Report H 412).

Hagerty Hall, which had been completed in 1924 on the north side of the Hollow, was expanded southward in 1948-50 and encroached slightly on the Hollow. (See Herrick, Buildings: Report 037)

In 1951 the Ohio Union was completed at the upper end of the Hollow where the south branch of Neil Run formerly flowed. (See Figure 7)

In 1976, the Ohio Union Parking Ramp was built at the upper end of the Hollow, probably over the old stream bed of the Iuka branch of Neil Run. (See Figure 7)



The first graduating class, the class of 1878, had their picture taken on the shore of Mirror Lake in 1877. The commencement exercises in the spring of 1884 were held "near the lake" and a quarter century later (in 1910) they were held in a large tent in the Hollow. In that same year, 1910, the Hollow was the scene of a band concert, the Sphinx ceremony, a Campus Fete, the Browning Society's presentation of "The Tempest," and the taking of "involuntary baths" in Mirror Lake by many freshmen. In 1919, Red Trautman edged out John Wilce to win the first golf tournament on the new campus course that lay partly in the Hollow.

These are but a few of the many events and activities that made the spring and the Hollow "hallowed" places, as the Lantern was wont to say, in the memories of thousands of students, faculty members and townspeople. A complete record of such events is obviously impossible to compile, but a scanning of the Lantern files,[14] supplemented by a few other sources, yields a long list, which is summarized by decades in Appendix B.

  1. Commencements

    One of the earliest of the traditional events associated with the lake and the Hollow were the Commencement Day exercises. These were held "near the lake" in 1884, according to the Lantern.[15] In 1885, 1890, and 1891 they were held in "the beautiful grove of the campus," which overlooked the lake on the north side. In 1896 commencement was held "in the big tent" at an unspecified location, and in 1910 in a tent in the Hollow between Orton Hall and the Observatory. No later commencements are known to have been held near the lake or in the Hollow, but many related events were held there. These included Senior Class breakfasts (e.g. 1920), Senior Class Day exercises (e.g. 1935), Browning Society plays (e.g. 1927), Parents Day luncheons (1914), and alumni meetings (e.g. 1924).

  2. May Week

    At noon on May 2, 1887 young ladies emerged from the cloakroom and "with step undismayed and line unbroken, armed with lunch baskets, they took their winding way lake-ward." There they chose Miss Detmars as May Queen and then concluded their "May Day Festivities" with a picnic on the slope. Two decades later (1909), the "First Girls Campus Fete," attended by 2000 people, was held in the Hollow. The processional down the hill from the north was accompanied by an orchestra, and was followed by songs and dances. A lantern inscribed "Campus Fete, Class of 1909, Seniors to Juniors" was presented by the senior girls.

    Thus began a long tradition of annual spring events variably called May Week, May Festival, May Fete, Traditions Day, and Traditions Week. In 1915 and 1916 the audiences reached 3000, and in 1919 there were 1000 students in the cast alone. Over the years, fellows as well as girls came to be involved, and the program came to include such varied events as skits, dancing, speeches, group singing, band concerts, tugs-of-war, and May Suppers. Also, with the passage of time, the program spread beyond the Hollow to the Oval, the Stadium, and other places on campus.

  3. Honorary Society Initiations

    By tradition, the spring and the lake have long been associated with the initiation ceremonies of certain organizations, chiefly honoraries. Sphinx was organized at Ohio State in 1907. Traditionally it has linked new members in front of University Hall, and then led the new members to the Sun Dial in the Oval, and on to the spring or some other spot near the lake. The ceremonies are essentially the same today, except that the group recently began disbanding at the Sun Dial. Bucket and Dipper initiates since at least 1912 have gone to the spring or lake for part of their initiation. Initiates have kissed the Bucket and Dipper rock, now on the north shore of the lake, and have been thrown into the lake. This latter practice, however, has just recently been abandoned. Mortar Board and Mirrors have traditionally held initiation ceremonies at the lake or near the lake. Other organizations which have from time to time used the lake area for initiation include Links, Romophos, Women's Student Government Association, and the Browning Dramatic Society.

  4. Browning Society Plays

    For almost a half century (1908-1955) the Browning Society each spring presented a play, usually Shakespearean, in the vicinity of the lake. In the early years, a grassy spot on the north shore of the lake served as the stage, and the audience was seated on the hillside across the lake. Later, the site was the Browning Amphitheater which had been constructed with funds raised by the Browning Society. A typical program included a processional from a nearby building. Two performances a year were common, but the 1952 and 1953 plays were presented three times. The plays were often billed as part of the Commencement Week Program, and in some years attendance at the Browning play was included in the annual program of the alumni association. Townspeople as well as students and faculty attended these plays.

  5. Musical Events

    Mirror Lake Hollow has long been the site of band concerts and other musical events, usually in the spring of the year and sometimes during the summer quarter as well. In 1910, the "first band concert of the year" was scheduled "near the spring" on May 19, and two years later over 2000 attended the "first college sing held by the spring." Both became common events, but the campus sings moved elsewhere in 1939. The band concerts, which reached an attendance of 4200 in 1937, have only recently moved to the Ohio Union to avoid the expenses of setting up chairs and repairing chairs for concerts in the Hollow. Rock & Roll concerts and performances by the OSU Jazz Ensemble came into the picture in 1978, and in 1984 Ohio Staters, Inc. sponsored jazz concerts in the amphitheater.

  6. Dunkings

    A colorful, and probably the most controversial, tradition associated with Mirror Lake, was the involuntary immersion of freshmen and others in the lake, variously called "ducking", "dunking", or "dipping". In 1902, a sophomore group known as the "Smoke Eaters" undertook to require that freshmen perform certain acts under penalty of being thrown into the lake, but it is not known that the penalty was actually enforced at that time. The following year saw a campus controversy over enforcement of the rules, with the Lantern and the sophomore class in favor of enforcement and with the faculty and probably President Thompson opposed. When the first ducking occurred is not known, but the Lantern of September 21, 1909 included a picture of two men in the water with the caption "The Freshman Bathtub--or Moonlight on Lake Mirror." [sic] This treatment of freshmen peaked in 1925. A total of 230 were ducked during May. In 1926, over 100 of them were ducked during a fracas following the Freshman Cap Burning ceremony in the Hollow. Incidentally, this fracas extended over two days, water was put into a policeman's motorcycle gasoline tank, and one student suffered a concussion at the hands of the police. The following spring, President Rightmire banned further hazing of freshmen.

    Freshmen were not the only ones to experience the chill of an unexpected plunge into the lake. Bucket & Dipper traditionally "dipped" its initiates into the lake until the past few years. Social fraternity seniors, Veterinary college seniors, members of the Buckeye Club, Romophos initiates, Makio staff members, Lantern staff members, engaged couples, and many an unsuspecting coed were among the other victims over the years. Today the fishes of Mirror Lake no longer share their habitat with student visitors.

The foregoing are the most commonly recurring events at the lake and in the Hollow. Literally scores of others are listed in Appendix B. Activities of a given time can be located by entering Appendix B directly by year; those of a given type, by use of the index.



Identification of Buildings

Numerous campus buildings are mentioned in this report. Since building names change from time to time, each campus building was assigned an identifying number in Herrick, OSU Campus Buildings.

The buildings mentioned herein are listed below along with their identifying numbers. These will enable the reader to go to OSU Campus Buildings for any needed additional information. Also, the locations of many of these buildings are shown on Figures 1 and 7 herein.

Building Name Bldg. No. Remarks
Armory H 202 At College Road & 15th Ave., west of Mershon Auditorium. Burned in 1958.
Botanical Hall H 114 Directly in front of present Faculty Club. Later called State Health Department Laboratory. Demolished in 1941. This building shown in top picture on Frontispiece.
Botany & Zoology 014  
Browning Amphitheater 5092 See Figure 7 for location.
Campbell Hall 018 Also called Home Economics Building.
College 088 The original University Hall. Razed in 1971. See Figure 1 for location.
Commerce 037 Now called Hagerty Hall. See Figure 7 for location.
Dormitories H 108, H 109  
Faculty Club 028 See Figure 7 for location. This building shown in front of Orton Hall tower in bottom picture on Frontispiece.
Field House 086  
Gymnasium H 202 Same as Armory.
Hagerty Hall 037 Originally called Commerce Building. See Figure 7 for location.
Hamilton Hall 038  
Log & Frame House H 005 Also called Janitor's House.
Mendenhall Lab 054 See Figure 7 for location.
Natatorium 346 Now part of Larkins Hall.
Observatory 052 Also called McMillin Observatory. Located immediately east of Pomerene Hall.
Ohio Field H 239  
Ohio Union (original) 085 Located at 154 W. 12th Ave. Now called Student Services Building. See Figure 7 for location.
Ohio Union (present) 058 See Figure 7 for location.
Ohio Union Parking Ramp 288 See Figure 7 for location.
Orton Hall 060 See Figure 7 for location. The tower of this building shown behind Faculty Club in bottom picture on Frontispiece.
Page Hall 061 See Figure 7 for location.
Physical Education Bldg. 346 Now part of Larkins Hall.
Pomerene Hall 067 See Figure 7 for location.
Power Plant 069 Now called McCracken Power Plant.
President's House 959 At 220 W. 12th Avenue. See Figure 7 for location.
Stadium 082  
Student Services Bldg. 085 Original Union at 154 W. 12th Ave. See Figure 7 for location.
Union 085 Now Student Services Building. See Figure 7 for location.
University Hall 088 Razed in 1971. Was on same site as present University Hall. See "College on Figure 1.
Veterinary Clinic 299 West of Olentangy River.
Water Resources Bldg. 132  
Women's Field House 029 At same location as barn shown on Figure 1.
220 W. 12th Ave. 959 Built as President's Residence. See Figure 7 for location.



Chronological Summary of Activities and Events in Mirror Lake Hollow

The 1870's    
1877 - Class of 1878 photographed on north shore of the lake (Photo Archives).
The 1880's    
1884 - Commencement Day exercises "held near the lake." (L: 6/1884)
1885 - Commencement in the "beautiful grove of the campus." (L: 6/26/1885) Probably on hill at north side of lake.
1886 - Browning Society picnic at lake. (Makio 1886:90)
1887 - ay Day Festivities at lake. Chose May Queen. Picnic lunch. (L: 5/5/1887) Class Day exercises "in the grove near the lake." (L: 6/23/1887)
The 1890's    
1890 - Commencement procession from University Hall "marched down the walk to the platform, erected in the beautiful grove crowning the hill by the lake." (L:6/27/1890)
1891 - Commencement "in the grove." (L: 6/25/1891)
1895 - "Horticultural wagon" dumped into lake as a Halloween prank. (L:11/6/1895)
1896 - Commencement "in the big tent." Location not stated. (L: 6/18/1896)
1897 - School boys and girls of Columbus skate on lake. (L: 2/3/1897)
1898 - Lantern said, "The spring is a centre where people from all parts of the city congregate...." (4/20/1898)
1902 - Sophomore group called "Smoke Eaters" undertook "to revive interclass warfare." Freshman required to perform certain acts under penalty of being thrown into lake. No statement than any freshman was actually thrown in. (L:10/8/1902)
1903 - Campus controversy over enforcement of Freshman rules. Faculty and probably President Thompson opposed. Lantern and sophomore class supported rules. Freshmen undecided. Rules dropped on account of fear of "Legislative reprisal." No report of any actual ducking of freshmen, but there were several interclass clashes. (L: various dates in October & November, 1903)
1906 - Two boys with carts hauled water away from spring. (L: 2/21/1906)
1907 - Sphinx organized at OSU. Link Day to be second Wednesday in May (L:3/6/1907). Link Day scheduled for May 8 (L: 5/l/1907). Following linking in front of University Hall, "walked by different routes to an appointed spot near the lake" for greetings and singing. Initiation at later date (L: 5/22/1907).
  - Class history announces adoption of freshman restrictions, and assumes that next year they will "duck the freshman in the lake" (L: 6/21/1907).
1908 - Browning Society will present "As You Like It" on the "little peninsula between the two lakes on the University grounds" (L: 3/18/1908). On April 22 the Lantern stated that play would be staged "around the spring" facing "Observatory Hill," and that the audience would be seated on the hillside south of the lake. Play was presented on June 5. Lantern (6/25/1908) expressed hope that such an event would become an annual event (It did, and continued through 1955).
  - As part of Link Day (Sphinx) ceremonies, the students who were linked were taken to Observatory Hill (south of lake) for ceremonies (L: 5/20/1908).
  - Ben Greet Players staged three Shakespearean plays at the lake as part of Commencement Week activities (L: 6/25/1908).
1909 - Browning Society will give Shakespearean play "on a natural stage formed by a clump of trees near Mirror Lake, and the audience will be seated on the slopes of Observatory Hill" (L: 5/5/1909). Procession of players "will wind around the hill from the Botanical Building [where the Faculty Club now stands] and enter the natural stage formed by the group of trees near the spring" (L: 6/2/1909).
  - Sixteen juniors linked by Sphinx and led to spring for brief ceremonies. (L:5/19/1909)
  - First Girls Campus Fete, attended by 2000 people, in the valley between Observatory Hill and Orton Hall. Also called May Day. Included procession, songs, dances, orchestra, and presentation of memorial lantern to junior class. Lantern inscribed "Campus Fete, Class of 1909, Seniors to Juniors." Each succeeding class to attach a pendant bearing class numerals. Lantern hoped this would become an annual affair, which it did (L: 5/26 & 6/2/1909).
  - Cartoon on front page of first Lantern in the fall (9/21/1909) shows two men in water, and was captioned "The Freshman Bathtub--or Moonlight on Lake Mirror." [sic]
  - Red class numerals painted on spring and 46 other places on campus. Freshman class collected enough money to remove them (L:10/6/1909).
1910 - Second "annual campus fete" scheduled "in the natural amphitheater between Orton Hall and the Observatory" (L: 2/16/1910). To be May 20 (L: 4/13/1910).
  - Browning Society will present "The Tempest." Outdoor rehearsals to begin in April, and play to be given June 3 & 21 (L: 4/13/1910). Play was "near the spring" (L: 6/2/1910).
  - 1500 people watch Link Day (Sphinx) ceremonies on May 25. Linking at University Hall. Group then proceeded to Sun Dial, to the spring, and then to the foot of Observatory Hill, where ceremony was held (L: 5/25/1910).
  - First band concert of the year on May 19 "near the spring" (L: 5/18/1910).
  - Campus Fete held May 26. Procession from Oval to Hollow south of Orton "where the entertainment was to have its center of interest" (L: 6/2/1910).
  - Commencement to be held on June 22 in tent in the "hollow between Orton Hall and the Observatory..." (L: 6/8/1910)
  - "A great deal of hazing of freshmen went on last week, resulting in a large number of involuntary baths in Mirror Lake..." (L: 9/21/1910)
  - "Down by the spring last Sunday afternoon there were people around everywhere. Some lay sprawled on the hill above the grotto chewing grass. Others filed back and forth past the spring and the tins [tin cups] rattled on the stone coping. Strolling about were people -- fellows with their girls, girls alone, fellows alone, married folks with baby buggies, all in their Sunday best, enjoying the autumn sunshine. Little boys and little girls flung bread crusts to the fish and the fish sucked them down in smacking gulps. And one boy had a jack-knife boat propelled by the works of an alarm clock. Another had a toy sailboat. Mirror Lake was smooth as glass; and cob-webs were in the air" (L: 10/5/1910).
1911 - Rehearsals for Annual May Fete began this week. Will include pageant. In outdoor setting, probably near the lake. (L: 5/10/1911)
  - Sphinx initiates linked on May 10. Taken to the Browning stage by Mirror Lake. (L: 5/17/1911)
  - Tug-of-War held at lake of May 18. Freshmen dragged sophomores through the lake. 5000 spectators. The event was held last year, but place not specified. (L: 5/24/1911)
  - "Midsummer Nights Dream'' to be presented by Browning Society on "in the valley of Mirror Lake" (L: 5/24/1911).
1912 - Over 2000 at "First College Sing Held by the Spring" (L: 5/1/1912).
  - Beaumont Johnson wandered too close to lake. Three others pushed him in. (L:5/1/1912)
  - About 700 students to participate in May Festival in Hollow. Historical pageant as part of Columbus centennial (L: 5/8/1912). Seen by 5000 people (L:5/15/1912).
  - Sophomores won Tug-of-War. Dragged freshmen through Mirror Lake (L:5/27/1912).
  - Bucket & Dipper marched to the spring as part of initiation ceremony (L:5/29/1912).
  - Browning Society presented "Much Ado About Nothing" in Hollow (L:6/11/1912).
1913 - Student Council Sing tomorrow in the Hollow (L: 5/7/1913) Free exhibition of movies near spring following sing (L:5/14/1913). Poorly attended on account of bad weather (L:5/21/1913).
  - Flood prevented 1913 May Fete in Hollow (L:4/9/1913).
  - Replaced by Pageant on Oval. Attended by 10,000 (L:6/13/1913).
  - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake (L: 5/24/1913). Following Tug-of-War, about 200 girls had picnic lunch and games at lake (L: 5/14 & 5/21/1913).
  - Browning Society staged "As You Like It" in Hollow (L: 6/13/1913).
  - On account of opposition to hazing, only three freshmen "tasted the waters of Mirror Lake" (L: 9/24/1913).
1914 - Professor Jacoby of Poultry Department suggested that ducks and geese, and possibly swans, be put on lake during summer (L: 3/4/1914).
  - 1800 spectators at May Fete in Hollow. Featured classical dances. (L: 4/29, 5/20 & 5/27/1914)
  - Sphinx linked 16 members. Part of ceremony at the spring. (L: 5/20/1914)
  - Sophomores defeated freshmen in Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake. (Pictures in L: 5/26/1961)
  - College Sing in Hollow as part of May Day. Large crowd included townspeople. (L: 5/27/1914)
  - Parents Day luncheon part of Commencement Week program, held "near the spring." (L: 6/16/1914)
  - Student Council established committee of sophomores to enforce rule requiring the wearing of freshman caps. No hazing. No report of any dunking in Mirror Lake (L: 9/15/1914).
  - Freshmen invited to sing at spring in evening (L: 9/18/1914).
1915 - May Festival in the Hollow. May Queen crowned before audience of 3000. Festival, including dances, called "The Spirit of Spring" (L: 5/25/1915).
  - Sphinx linked 16 members. Marched in cap and gown to Mirror Lake for part of ceremony. (L: 5/13/1915)
  - Bucket & Dipper tossed 15 sophomore initiates into lake last night (L:5/20/1915).
  - Sing to be held in Hollow near spring Friday night. (L: 5/26/1915)
  - Freshmen pulled into lake at Tug-of-War on May 27. (L: 5/28/1915)
  - Browning Society presented "Romeo & Juliet" June 11 at Mirror Lake. (L: 6/14/1915)
  - Student Council again required that freshmen wear freshman caps. Violators to be turned over to vigilante committee (L:10/5/1915). No report of any dunking in Mirror Lake.
1916 - Sphinx linked 16 members. Part of ceremony on "knoll by the spring." (L: 5/17 & 5/18/1916)
  - Tug-of-War at Mirror Lake on May 18. (L: 5/18/1916) Won by freshmen. Crowd of 2000. (L: 5/19/1916)
  - Crowd of 3000 saw "An Elizabethan May Frolic" (May Fete) on May 19 in Hollow. (L: 5/22/1916)
  - Bucket & Dipper "solemnly immersed" 15 initiates in Mirror Lake. (L:5/24/1916)
  - Browning Society to present "Midsummer Night's Dream" on outdoor stage near the spring on June 1 & June 3. (L: 5/24/1916) 300 attended on June 1 (L: 6/2/1916) and 700 on June 3. (L: 6/4/1916)
  - Over 5000 attended ox-roast and carnival in Hollow. (L: 5/29/1916)
  - Eight sophomores "take a chilling jump into Mirror Lake" as part of fraternity pledge activities. (L: 10/3/1916)
1917 - Plans for May Fete called off on account of unsettled (wartime) conditions. (L:5/l/1917)
  - Sphinx linked 14 members. Part of ceremony at Mirror Lake (L: 5/10 & 5/11/1917).
  - Sophomores won Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake. (L: 5/18/1917) After some indecision on account of unsettled (wartime) conditions, Browning Society decided to proceed with plans to present "The Tempest." (L: 5/21/1917) Presented on June 1 "in the hollow near the spring." (L: 6/4/1917)
  - No University sing held this year. (L: 5/17/1918)
  - Pageant of Womanhood on June 25 at Mirror Lake. 300 participants (L:6/27/1917).
  - Midsummer Night Song Festival in Hollow on July 20 (L:7/20/1917).
1918 - Bucket & Dipper initiated 15 sophomores, who took "traditional plunge into Mirror Lake" (L: 5/1/1918).
  - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake on May 6 (L: 5/6/1918). Won by sophomores; 600 attended. (L: 5/7/1918)
  - Sphinx linked 16 juniors. Part of ceremony "in the hollow by Mirror Lake." (L:5/9/1918)
  - "Eaglesmere breakfast" in the Hollow by Mirror Lake on May 15 at 6:30 a.m. Attended by girls who went to Y.W.C.A. conference in Eaglesmere, Pa. (L:5/14 & 5/16/1918)
  - Annual University Sing "at the spring" on May 17 attended by 1500. (L: 5/17 & 5/20/1918)
  - Simplified ceremonies in place of May Fete. Procession down Observatory Hill to Hollow. "Lantern of Knowledge" given to juniors by seniors. (L: 5/21 & 5/22/1918)
  - Browning Society presented "A Winter Tale" "at the spring" (L:5/24 & 5/27/1918).
1919 - After two year lapse (on account of war), student sings resumed on April 23, with two more scheduled in May (L: 4/23/1919).
  - Sphinx linked 14 members. Part of ceremony at the spring (L: 9/22/1919).
  - Freshmen won cane rush and then gathered at the spring. Threw 3 or 4 sophomores into lake and then marched on Long Walk (L:9/22/1919).
  - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake on May 16 resulted in tie (L:5/19/1919). Repeated on May 23 (L: 5/26/1919).
  - May Fete again held in Hollow. (L: 5/28/1919) 1000 in cast (L:5/8/1919).
  - Browning Society to present "Merry Wives of Windsor" in Hollow (L:6/5/1919). Proceeds to be used for construction of a Greek Theater--now Browning Amphitheater (L: 6/4/1919).
  - Bucket & Dipper to initiate 15 men on June 15. Will take "traditional plunge in Mirror Lake" (L: 5/13/1919).
  - Class exercises scheduled "in the hollow around the spring" for June 16. Includes class poem, class oration, memorial address, and acceptance of memorial by President Thompson in morning. Passing of "lamp of knowledge" (Lantern Ceremony) from seniors to juniors to be in afternoon. (L: 6/4/1919) Lantern Ceremony rained out (L: 6/17/1919).
  - First annual golf tournament on new golf course which lay partly in Hollow (L: 8/8/1919).
  - Freshmen forbidden to be on Long Walk (in Oval) and required to wear "peanut caps." Violators to be thrown into lake (L: 9/16 & 9/22/1919).
  - Mass sing "at the spring" at "Know Ohio Night" for new students. (L:9/16/1919) Some 700 to 750 attended (L: 9/18/1919). Another sing two nights later drew 1400 to 1500 participants (L: 9/18/1919).
The 1920's    
1920 - Bucket & Dipper initiates tossed into lake on May 5 (L: 5/6/1920). Followed by first sing of season on hillside overlooking Mirror Lake. About 500 participated. (L: 5/6/1920) University Band participated. (L: 5/4/1920)
  - Bucket & Dipper threw two freshmen into lake for not wearing freshman caps. (L: 5/7/1920)
  - Sophomores won Tug-of-War. 1100 spectators (L: 5/17/1920). Losers were to wade through lake to greet winners (L:5/12/1920).
  - May Breakfast scheduled for May 25 in Hollow. (L: 5/14/1920) Changed to Oval to make use of cooking facilities in the Armory (L: 5/19/1920).
  - Interfraternity competitive sing in Hollow on May 21. Attended by high school & college students on campus for Big Six track & field meet. (L: 5/20/1920) Sing won by Phi Delta Theta. Crowd numbered 700, including Big Six visitors (L: 5/24/1920). The Lantern Ceremony followed the sing (L: 5/24/1920). Mortar Board members and new initiates attended Lantern Ceremony in caps and gowns. (L:5/21/1920)
  - Browning Society presented play in the Hollow on June 11 and 12. Total attendance, 1400 (L: 6/14/1920). Each performance preceded by torchlight procession from Campbell Hall past the spring to the Hollow (L: 6/7/1919). Plays to be considered part of commencement program (L: 5/28/1920).
  - Senior class breakfast in Hollow following ivy planting ceremony. (L:6/14/1920)
  - May Fete scheduled for May 28 in Hollow east of Mirror Lake. (L: 5/13/1920)
  - Browning play rehearsals started in April. (L: 4/12/1920) No later report noted.
  - Neighborhood boys and girls fishing in Mirror Lake. (L: 7/2/1920)
  - No summer sings at spring this year. (L: 7/16/1920) Note: only previous summer sing noted was in 1917.
  - Bucket & Dipper "strong arm" squad to enforce rules requiring freshmen to wear freshman caps and to keep off the Long Walk and the University Hall steps. Penalty--dunking in Mirror Lake. (L: 9/17/1920)
  - Dunking in Mirror Lake discussed as penalty for infraction of Oxley Hall (girls' dormitory) rules by freshmen. (L: 9/21/1920) Three freshman dunked for being on Long Walk. (L: 10/14/1920)
  - Another freshman dunked by Bucket & Dipper for being on Long Walk. (L:10/18/1920)
  - Women's Day Pageant "in the tradition-hallowed Hollow" (L:10/21/1920).
1921 - Bucket & Dipper will initiate 15 new members tomorrow. They will be thrown into the lake. (L: 5/3/1921) Will be followed by University sing, with band and string quartet, on south side of lake. (L: 4/29/1921)
  - Sphinx initiation of 16 included ceremony at spring (L: 5/11/1921).
  - President Thompson to speak at spring on May 20 following Mortar Board ceremony. (L: 5/16/1921)
  - Annual May Fete in Hollow on May 20. Included spring pageant, pantomime dancing, and performances by University orchestra and glee clubs. (L: 5/23/1921)
  - Bix Six night (in connection with Big Six track & field meet) held at spring on May 27. Program included march from Gymnasium to "tradition-hallowed Hollow," band concert, Lantern Ceremony, talk by master-of-ceremonies, interfraternity sing, men & women's glee clubs, University Quartet, talk by Coach Wilce, Baptist Quartet, Tug-of-War & Carmen Ohio. (L: 5/27/1921) Cabinet had earlier decided against Tug-of-War at the lake, because of potential damage to sod, (L: 5/10/1921) but Men's Student Council had gone ahead. University Architect Bradford protested, saying in a letter to the editor, "Mirror Lake by nature is the most peaceful spot on the campus. Why disturb it by staging a battle on its banks and in its waters?" (L: 5/19/1921).
  - The Agricultural Circle to hold picnic in Hollow north of Union tomorrow (L:6/2/1921).
  - Alumni Day program for June 11 includes annual meeting "near the spring" (L:6/3/1921).
  - Browning Society gave two performances of "Taming of the Shrew" in Hollow during Commencement Week. In spite of thunderstorms, 350 saw second performance. Cleared $200 on two performances. (L: 6/13/1921)
  - First sing of the 1921-22 year at the spring on September 21 attended by 2000. Freshmen learned songs and cheers. Speeches by Coaches Wilce and Trautman (L: 9/21 & 9/22/1921).
  - The Lantern announced on September 30 that freshmen rules would be enforced by Bucket & Dipper. It reported on October 17 that one freshman was taken from the Oval by 8 to 10 men after dark, dunked in the lake, and then forced to sing Carmen Ohio. In an editorial on October 26, dunking was referred to as "The Historic Bath."
  - Swans placed on the lake by an unknown donor. (L: 12/12/1921) On June 23, 1922, the Lantern identified the donor as Frank C. Medick, who had found this swan on the Olentangy River north of Worthington. Since he was unable to find the owner, he brought it to Mirror Lake with the acquiescence of President Thompson
1922 - Bucket & Dipper announced that "no promiscuous 'ducking' or 'dipping' is to take place" except under the supervision of present or former members of Bucket & Dipper. If attempted otherwise, Bucket & Dipper will defend freshman (L: 4/4/1922). Bucket & Dipper "Annual Dip Day" on May 3. Initiation of 15 sophomores concluded "with traditional dip in the lake." (L:5/2/1922)
  - Sphinx linked 13 men at University Hall, followed by customary trip to Sun Dial and then to the spring (L: 5/8 & 5/10/1922).
  - Tug-of-War at Mirror Lake on May 26 (L: 4/18/1922). This to be last time at lake. President Thompson quoted as saying:
"The University is trying to make the lake a place of as much beauty as possible ....

"Extensive plans are being carried out to make this valley a beautiful arborteum, and believing that the annual tug-of-war will ruin any such efforts, the authorities have decided definitely to ban this activity from this place".
  - Tug-of-War to be preceded by Lantern Ceremony and followed by fraternity sign (L: 5/18/1922)
  - City of Columbus donated a second swan as a companion to the one that appeared mysteriously last fall (L: 5/3/1922)
  - Browning Society presented "Much Ado About Nothing" on June 9 & 10 in the Hollow. The second performance capped the Alumni Day program (L: 5/24 & 6/11/1922)
  - The Lantern on May 26, 1922 editorialized as follows:
"Of all the placed on campus, none is so beautiful and none possesses such a halo of tradition and romance as Mirror Lake and the Spring. Campus activities might rightly be said to center at this peaceful, shaded spot. There the most sacred traditions are observed. It is at that place where the greatest student honors are bestowed.

"Mirror Lake every year is made more sacred to certain groups of students."

The editorial goes on to list these events as taking place at the lake:

  1. Senior class hands down the lamp of knowledge to junior girls [Lantern Ceremony]
  2. Mortar Board holds its impressive ceremonies
  3. Sphinx concludes its ceremonies in the Hollow
  4. Bucket & Dipper initiates get "damp reception in the cool waters of the lake
  5. May Fete annually in Hollow
  6. Browning play annually
  7. Annual Tug-of-War, sings, receptions for freshmen, and many other events
  - It was decided that May Fete would be held every two years, not including 1922 (L: 3/2 & 3/7/1922). However, May Queen was elected, and was crowned on May 26 at Mirror Lake. In addition to crowning of queen, the program on May 26 included the Lantern Ceremony, welcoming of Big Six track meet guests, and a fraternity sing (L: 5/29/1922).
  - Browning Society presented "Much Ado About Nothing" in Hollow on June 9 & 10 (L: 6/12/1922). Alumni Day on June 10 ended with attendance at play. (L: 5/24/1922)
  - The Browning Alumni Association annual business meeting to be held at the spring on June 10 (L: 6/2/1922).
  - Mortar Board ceremonies at Mirror Lake on Commencement Day. Mortar Board seniors filed down the hill from the Observatory to meet the juniors (initiates) who waited for them on the slope above the spring. They then went to the opposite bank of the lake for the initiation ritual. (L: 6/13/1922)
  - Vesper Services every Wednesday at 4:00 p.m. during the summer were announced by the Lantern on June 19, 1922. Later issues indicated that four services were held in the Hollow. One was moved to Campbell Hall on account of the weather.
  - Know Ohio Week for freshmen to include traditional sing at the spring on October 4 (L: 10/2/1922).
  - Bucket & Dipper warned freshmen to wear caps (L: 10/4/1922). On October 10, 1922 Lantern editorially rejected faculty suggestion that dunking be replaced by some sort of labor as penalty for infraction of rules.
1923 - President Thompson notified that there was some dunking of freshmen for offenses not justifying dunking. Only Bucket & Dipper members are authorized to dunk freshmen, and then only for violations of rules laid down by Student Council. Others who dunk freshmen will be tried by Student Council (L:3/29/1923).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates tossed into lake on May 2. (L: 4/30 & 5/3/1923)
  - Sphinx Link Day ceremonies to be on May 9. Will include usual visit to the spring. (L: 5/7/1923) Held in University Hall on account of weather. (L 5/9/1923)
  - Bucket & Dipper dunked five freshmen for failure to wear caps and for "weak" singing of Carmen Ohio. Large crowd (L: 5/10/1923).
  - May Fete (now biennial) scheduled for May 24 in the Hollow. (L: 5/11/1923) Set up bleachers for 2000 in Hollow facing Mirror Lake. (L: 5/17/1923) Program of day included annual Lantern Ceremony, the Tug-of-War, and a fraternity sing at the spring. (L: 5/16/1923)
  - Browning Dramatic Society to present "Twelfth Night" in Hollow on June 8 & 9. A tent at rear of stage will serve as dressing room. (L: 6/8/1923) This was part of Commencement Week program. (L: 5/l/1923) Attendance at play on June 9 was also part of Alumni Day program. (L: 6/4/1923)
  - Four seniors dunked in lake by a fraternity. (L: 6/8/1923)
  - Old-fashioned song fest at the spring on July 20 (L:7/18/1923). The Lantern observed editorially (7/20/1923) that these sings had been one of the bright spots for years.
  - Bucket & Dipper ducked 10 freshmen for violation of cap rule (L:10/23/1923)
1924 - On April 8, 38 freshmen were ducked bringing total for week to 72. The Lantern observed that Bucket & Dipper members were doing their job (L:4/9/1924).
  - Browning Society play in Hollow on June 13 & 14. (L: 6/9/1924)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiated 15 sophomores, who were dunked in lake. (L:5/7/1924)
  - Sphinx linked 14 members. Ceremony included march around Mirror Lake. (L:5/14/1924)
  - Traditional events in the Hollow on May 22 to include:
  1. Lantern Ceremony
  2. Tug-of-War
  3. Fraternity sing
  4. Installation of Women's Student Council members (L:5/21/1924)
Events were witnessed by 2000 students (L:5/23/1924).
  - Mortar Board will initiate 10 members at Mirror Lake on Commencement Day "as is the annual custom." (L: 5/23/1924)
  - Commencement Week program includes Browning play and annual alumni meeting, both near the spring. (L: 6/4/1924)
  - Freshmen warned to wear only official caps, and to have a receipt for same from the Coop Store (University bookstore). Overruled by President Thompson. (L: 9/30 & 10/2/1924)
1925 - Band concert on north porch of Union with audience in Hollow on April 23 (L:4/17/1925).
  - Bucket & Dipper to initiate 15 sophomores on May 6. Will be thrown into lake. (L: 5/5/1925)
  - Lantern criticized Bucket & Dipper for not helping freshmen. (L: 5/6/1925)
  - Sphinx Link Day ceremonies on May 13, including some at the spring (L:5/11/1925).
  - May Fete scheduled for May 14 in the Hollow. Attendance of 1000 expected. (L: 5/14/1925)
  - Veterinary College juniors threw five seniors into lake. This is traditional. (L:5/19/1925)
  - Spring Traditions Night on May 22 at Mirror Lake. Program included:
  1. May Supper in Hollow. Seventy-five fraternity & sorority members to attend in a body.
  2. Tug-of-War
  3. Sing
Participants numbered 2300 (L: 5/15 & 5/25/1925).
  - Freshmen rules went into effect on first day of spring quarter. (L: 3/20/1925) Two hundred thirty violators had been dunked by May 28. (L: 5/28/1925)
  - Browning Society presented "Two Gentlemen of Verona" in the Hollow on June 12 & 13 during Commencement Week (L: 1/29, 4/8 & 6/15/1925).
  - Bucket & Dipper announced that it would recognize only freshmen caps bought at the Co-op (University bookstore) and announced rules. (L: 9/26 & 9/28/1925)
  - "Sing-at-the-Spring" for freshmen on the hill above the spring on September 30 with about 500 in attendance. (L: 10/l/1925)
  - A lone swan on the lake joined by a duck that appeared mysteriously. Same thing happened last year. (L: 10/2/1925)
1926 - Freshmen put up signs on Long Walk and at Mirror Lake reading, "To H--- with Bucket & Dipper." Eight freshmen were then thrown into lake by Bucket & Dipper. (L: 4/27/1926)
  - Fewer freshmen dunked this year. Without compulsory chapel, harder for Bucket & Dipper to spot them. (L: 5/4/1926) 15 Bucket & Dipper initiates thrown into lake. (L: 5/6/1926) Bucket & Dipper ducked 65 freshmen on May 6, 33 on May 17, and 37 on May 20. (L: 5/7, 5/17 & 5/20/1926)
  - Sphinx linked 17 members including President Rightmire (L:5/20/1926). Place not specified, but part of ceremony usually at the spring.
  - Freshman Cap Burning ceremony scheduled in Hollow south of Commerce Building. Bucket & Dipper tried to postpone it. In ensuing fracas, 103 freshmen thrown into lake, one sophomore was injured by policeman (concussion), and water was put into gasoline tank of policeman's motorcycle. (L: 5/21/1926) The "fights" continued over a period of two days (L: 5/24/1926). Lantern editorials (5/24 & 26/1926), polls of campus opinion (L: 5/24 & 25/1926) and meetings with President Rightmire (L: 5/24/1926) followed. The following spring, President Rightmire banned further hazing by Bucket & Dipper. (L: 4/20/1927)
  - Traditions Day program on May 21 included:
  1. Tug-of-War at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/17/1926)
  2. May Day Supper in Hollow with music by band. Attended by 2075. (L: 5/24/1926)
  3. Freshman Cap Burning in Hollow back of Commerce Building. (L: 5/21/1926)
  4. Installation of Women's Student Council officers and Lantern Ceremony (Place not specified, but both probably at lake.). (L: 5/21/1926)
  - Fraternity freshmen gave departing seniors a "mud bath" in Mirror Lake. (L:6/3/1926)
  - Mortar Board initiation on May 28 in Hollow. (L: 4/1 & 5/27/1926)
  - Browning Society presented "Midsummer Night's Dream" on June 11 & 12 in the new Browning Amphitheater (L: 6/14/1926). Dedication of Theater scheduled for June 11. (L: 5/26/1926)
  - Bucket & Dipper announced in September that it would enforce freshmen rules by ducking offenders in lake. (L: 9/30/1926) No reports of duckings in fall quarter noted.
1927 - Three senior engineers ducked by Phi Mu Delta (L: 4/19/1927). Other fraternities ducked seniors in bathtubs, in the river, or in the lake (L: 6/8/1927).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates will be ducked in lake today. (L: 5/3/1927)
  - Tug-of-War moved to avoid damage to turf around lake. To be held in Hollow south of Commerce Building. (L: 5/6/1927) in the spring, ducking was to start on May 7, but it was suspended until President Rightmire's views were known (L: 4/7/1927). Hazing by Bucket & Dipper was banned by the President on April 20 (L: 4/20/1927).
  - Sphinx initiated 16 members at lake (L: 5/11/1927).
  - Traditions Day sponsored by Women's Student Government Association included Lantern Ceremony south of Orton and a sing at an unspecified place, but probably in Hollow. (L: 5/18/1927) May Supper moved from Hollow to Oval. (L: 5/18/1927) Cap Burning moved from Hollow to Ohio Field (L:5/23/1927). May Fete moved from Hollow to Stadium (L: 5/5/1927). Commencement Program opened with Browning play in Amphitheater on June 10 & 11. (L: 5/20, 6/6 & 6/13/1927)
  - Girls of classes of 1926, 1927, and 1928 collected money and ordered two swans from Texas to put on lake. (L: 8/10/1927)
  - In the fall of 1927, Bucket & Dipper was stymied by President Rightmire's order of last spring against ducking of freshmen (L: 10/3/1927). They appealed to fraternities to enforce the freshman rules (L: 11/10/1927). Instead of ducking freshmen, Bucket & Dipper assisted in a Freshman Week orientation program. (L:10/11/1927)
1928 - Sphinx will hold "secret rites" for initiates in the "hollow by Mirror Lake." (L:5/8/1928)
  - Lantern Ceremony and installation of Women's Student Government Association officers in Hollow south of Orton. Followed by interfraternity sing at the spring, and a freshman rally in the Hollow. All part of Traditions Day. (L: 5/24/1928)
  - Alumni Association meeting scheduled in Browning Amphitheater, followed by attendance at Browning play. (L: 6/9/1928)
  - Browning Society to initiate 40 members in Amphitheater (L: 6/7/1928).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates "dipped in lake." (L: 5/1 & 5/2/1928) Tug-of-War to be May 25. (L: 5/16/1928) Place not specified. Campus sing in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 7/20/1928)
1929 - Bucket & Dipper initiates ducked in lake. (L: 5/2/1929)
  - Lantern reported Sphinx initiation, but did not refer to place. Usually part of ceremony was at lake. (L: 5/8/1929)
  - Lantern observed editorially (5/15/1929) that for all practical purposes the freshman rules were "a thing of the past" since Bucket & Dipper could no longer enforce them.
  - Lantern on 5/22/1929 included picture of Mortar Board initiation, but did not indicate place.
  - Traditions Day programs included interfraternity sing at the spring. (L: 5/24/1929) Lantern Ceremony also reported as part of Traditions Day program, but place not indicated. Usually in Hollow.
  - Browning Society play given June 7 & 8 in Amphitheater. (L: 6/10/1929)
  - Class Day exercises (history, poems, prophesy, etc.) in Browning Amphitheater (L: 6/10/1929).
The 1930's    
1930 - Bucket & Dipper initiates to be tossed into lake May 7 (L: 5/6/1930). A few minutes earlier, two ATO's were pushed into lake. (L: 5/8/1930)
  - Student Senate sponsored series of three Wednesday evening band concerts in Hollow east of Amphitheater starting May 14. (L: 5/9/1930) The final concert on May 28 was to be broadcast by WEAO (now WOSU) and was attended by approximately 800 in spite of adverse weather. (L: 5/28 & 5/29/1930)
  - Sphinx initiation ceremonies at lake on May 14. (L: 5/14/1930)
  - Freshman Cap Burning at Ohio Field on May 15 preceeded by interclass fight following interruption of parade by upperclassmen. Many from both sides thrown into Mirror Lake. (L: 5/16/1930)
  - Glen Dalton, YMCA secretary, was taken from his office and thrown into lake by 40 members. (L: 5/15/1930)
  - It was rumored that the Tug-of-War, part of Traditions Day, would return to Mirror Lake in spite of President Rightmire's ruling to the contrary. (L:5/19/1930) It was last reported to be at the lake in 1926. The 1930 contest was over the Olentangy. (L: 5/12/1930)
  - Lantern Ceremony in Hollow followed May Supper on Oval (L: 5/19/1930).
  - Annual meeting of alumni to be in "campus open air theater" followed by attendance at Browning play. (L: 6/2/1930)
  - Browning play in Amphitheater June 6 & 7. (L: 6/6/1930)
  - Mortar Board initiation at Mirror Lake on Commencement Day (L:6/10/1930).
  - University Summer Chorus presented concert in Browning Amphitheater on July 21. Attended by 300. (L: 7/23/1930)
1931 - Bucket & Dipper ceremonies on May 6 ended with ducking in lake (L:5/7/1931)
  - Series of Spring Concerts in Hollow sponsored by Student Senate. First one on May 6 attended by 300. Final one on May 27. Participating groups included University Symphony Orchestra, Women's Glee Club, University Concert Band, Men's Glee Club, and University Chorus. (L: 5/7, 5/11, 5/12, 5/13, 5/19, &.5/26/1931)
  - Sphinx ceremonies at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/13/1931)
  - May Supper to be in Hollow on May 22, followed by interfraternity sing. Supper moved to Oval at request of President Rightmire. Both forced indoors by rain. (L: 5/19, 5/21, & 5/22/1931)
  - Cap Burning and parade led to interclass fight. One sophomore tossed into Mirror Lake. (L: 5/22/1931)
  - Traditional Lantern Ceremony held in Hollow May 26 by Women's Student Government Association. (L: 5/27/1931)
  - Annual meeting of Alumni Association on Alumni Day to be in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 6/5/1931)
  - Browning Society play in Amphitheater on June 5. Entire cast carrying lighted torches and singing theme song marched from Pomerene along the lake to the Amphitheater. Attended by 400. June 6 performance moved to Pomerene on account of rain. (L: 6/4 & 6/8/1931)
  - 42 Browning Society initiates marched from Pomerene to Amphitheater for initiation ceremony. (L: 6/8/1931)
  - Watercolor class sketching at Mirror Lake. (L: 7/8/1931)
  - Students use Mirror Lake for study of marine life. (L: 8/5/1931)
  - Bucket & Dipper threatened ducking in lake to keep freshmen in line. (L:10/9/1931)
  - Freshmen painted class numerals on Long Walk. Forced by Bucket & Dipper to scrub off paint, using water from Mirror Lake (L:11/19/1931).
1932 - People skating on lake. (L: 3/9/1932)
  - Three sophomores threw a freshman into lake at 10:00 p.m. for not wearing freshman cap. (L: 4/6/1932)
  - May Traditions Festival May 11 to 14 included:
  1. Fraternity sing in Hollow. Won by Pi Kappa Alpha (L:5/16/1932).
  2. Lantern Ceremony sponsored by Women's Student Government Association. In Hollow south of Orton (L:5/16/1932).
  3. Bucket & Dipper initiation. Crowd of 2500 watched ducking of initiates. (L: 5/16/1932)
  - Series of four Twilight Concerts in Hollow starting May 11. Final concert rained out. Crowds ranged from 300 on May 11 to 1600 on May 25. (L: 5/12, 5/19, 5/26 & 6/2/1932)
  - Browning Society play to be in Amphitheater on June 9 & 10. (L: 6/8/1932)
1933 - Bucket & Dipper ducking of initiates on May 3 watched by 1000 (L: 5/4/1933).
  - Sphinx ceremonies at lake on May 10. (L: 5/9/1933)
  - Women's Student Government Association Traditions Week include Lantern Ceremony on May 12. No reference to place (L: 4/26/1933).
  - May supper on Oval preceded by fraternity sing at Mirror Lake (L: 5/15/1933).
  - Spring band concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 17, 18, & 31. Attendance ranged from 1000 to 1200. (L: 5/16, 5/18, 5/31 & 6/l/1933) Lantern on May 7, 1934 said average was 2000 in 1933.
  - Browning Society play June 1 & 2 in Amphitheater. (L: 5/31/1933) Participants in Alumni College to see play. (L: 5/15/1933)
1934 - Bucket & Dipper to toss 12 initiates into lake (L: 5/1 & 5/2/1934).
  - Traditions Week activities to include interfraternity and intersorority sing, Mortar Board initiation, and Sphinx ceremonies in Hollow. (L: 5/2, 5/9, & 5/11/1934) 200 attended sings. (L: 5/14/1932)
  - Series of four Twilight Concerts in Hollow from May 9 to June 1. (L: 5/l/1934) Attendance of 2000 on May 9, 2500 on May 16, and over 2000 on May 23. (L: 5/10, 17, 24/1934) Lantern on May 14, 1935 said average was 2500 in 1934.
  - Senior Class Day exercises to be in Amphitheater. (L: 6/6/1934)
  - Attendance at Browning Play part of Alumni Day program (L: 6/5/1934).
  - Browning Society play on June 7 & 8 during Commencement Week (L:5/16 & 6/5/1934).
1935 - Bucket & Dipper duckings as part of initiation in Olentangy River rather than Mirror Lake. (L: 5/2/1935)
  - Sphinx initiation in Amphitheater. (L: 5/8/1935)
  - Mortar Board rites on Oval rather than in Hollow. (L: 5/10/1935)
  - Series of four concerts scheduled in Hollow--May 15, May 22, May 29, and June 5. Sponsored by Student Senate (L: 5/14, 5/16, 5/21, & 5/28/1935).
  - ROTC sham battle near Mirror Lake on May 16. (L: 5/17/1935)
  - Commencement Programs, June 6 to 10, to include the following activities in the Amphitheater:
  1. Browning Play on June 6 & 7
  2. Class reunion on Alumni Day, June 8
  3. Class Day exercises on June 10 (L: 5/28/1935)
  - Swimming in Mirror Lake prohibited. (L: 5/29/1935)
  - Browning Society play in amphitheater to be on June 6 & 7 (L: 6/3/1935).
1936 - Browning Society play try-outs held in March (L: 3/9/1936). No later report in Lantern noted.
  - Romophos initiates paraded on Long Walk and past Mirror Lake on May 7. (L: 5/8/1936)
  - Tug-of-War, part of Traditions Week, in Hollow back of Commerce Building. (L: 5/12/1936)
  - Twilight Concerts in Hollow on May 13, May 20, May 27, and June 3 (L: 5/8, 5/18, 5/27, & 6/2/1936).
  - Spring Sing in Browning Amphitheater on May 14. Three fraternities and three sororities will participate (L: 5/14/1936).
  - Browning Amphitheater called one of leading campus romantic spots. Up to 15 couples there at one time, in spite of proximity to President's House. Also as many as 20 couples on south bank of lake. (L: 6/6/1936)
1937 - People carrying away Mirror Lake water in bottles (L: 4/26/1937).
  - Series of five Twilight Concerts in Hollow scheduled beginning May 5. First two cancelled on account of rain. Attendance of 1500 on May 19 and 4200 on June 1. May 19 concert part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/4, 5/5, 5/12, 5/17, 5/20, 6/1 & 6/2/1937)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates will be thrown into lake tonight. (L: 5/17/1937)
  - Sphinx initiation at lake on May 19. (L: 5/18 & 5/19/1937)
  - Tug-of-War in Hollow south of Commerce Building--part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/18/1937) (The Lantern on April 18, 1939 said there was no Tug-of-War in 1937.)
  - Six Greek groups to participate in sing tonight in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/20/1937) Part of Traditions Week. (L:5/14/1937)
  - Six members of Buckeye Club ducked in lake by other members. (L: 6/2/1937)
  - Browning society play scheduled for June 11 & 12 in Amphitheater. (L: 6/4/1937) Two scenes presented on May 19 as part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/20/1937)
1938 - An engineering student built a miniature yacht 40 inches long and sailed it on Mirror Lake. (L: 4/l/1938)
  - Twilight Concerts scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 4, May 11, and June 1. (L: 4/15, 5/11, & 6/l/1938) Also on May 18 as part of May Week. (L: 5/9/1938)
  - Three fraternities and two sororities participated in sing in Amphitheater as part of May Week activities. (L: 5/13 & 5/17/1938)
  - Traditions Week (May Week) activities in the Hollow to include:
  1. Tug-of-War on May 17 in Hollow back of Commerce Building. (The Lantern on April 18, 1939 said there was no Tug-of-War in 1938.)
  2. Band concert on May 18 in Hollow
  3. Bucket & Dipper initiation on May 18
  4. Spring Sing on May 19
  5. Sphinx initiation on May 20 (L: 5/9/1938)
  - Swans appeared on lake on May 19. Returned to Goodale Park. (L: 4/22 & 4/26/1938)
  - Mortar Board initiation to be in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/19/1938)
  - At Bucket & Dipper initiation during Traditions Week the new members ducked the old members in the lake. (L: 5/20/1938)
  - Browning Society play to be presented June 10 & 11 (L: 4/11/1938).
  - A Sigma Nu member ducked in lake by fellow members (L:12/13/1938).
1939 - Many May Week activities at Stadium rather than Mirror Lake. (L: 5/4/1939)
  - Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow begin May 10 (L: 5/9/1939). Other concerts scheduled May 17, May 24, & May 31. (L: 5/15, 5/23, & 5/25/1939) Attendance at May 17 concert was 4000. (L: 5/23/1939)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates to "swim in Mirror Lake." (L: 5/17/1939)
  - Mortar Board Initiation to be in Amphitheater. (L: 5/18/1939)
  - Interfraternity sing in Natatorium rather than Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/22/1939)
The 1940's    
1940 - Twilight Concerts scheduled in Hollow on May 8, May 15, May 22, and May 30. (L: 5/2, 5/15, & 5/21/1940).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates ducked in lake during Traditions Week. (L: 5/16/1940)
  - Browning Society play set for June 3 & 4. (L: 6/3/1940)
  - Dan Heinlin recalls playing at Mirror Lake as a boy. Caught crawdads by hand. Also attended band concerts in Hollow with his family.
1941 - The Lantern on April 4, 1941 pictured a girl lying on the grass by Mirror Lake. The caption was "Even Study Can be Fun in the Spring."
  - Four Twilight Concerts in Hollow planned beginning May 7 (L: 4/30/1941). Two to three thousand attended the concert on May 21, during Traditions Week. (L: 5/22/1941)
  - The May Supper during Traditions Week was scheduled for the Hollow. Planning for over 1000 people. (L: 5/16/1941)
  - Mortar Board initiation in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/22/1941)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates tossed into lake. (L: 5/22/1941)
  - Sphinx initiation at the spring. (L: 5/23/1941)
  - Browning Society to present play during Commencement Week. (L: 6/5/1941)
1942 - Series of four Twilight Concerts in Hollow beginning May 6 (L: 4/23/1942). Other concerts on May 13, May 27, and June 3 (L:5/13, 5/28, & 6/l/1942). The May 20 concert was cancelled on account of flood. (L: 5/21/1942) A crowd of 1500 attended the June 3 concert. (L: 6/4/1942) Three concerts scheduled for the summer. (L: 6/l/1942)
  - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/15/1942)
  - Mortar Board initiation at Amphitheater. (L: 5/21/1942)
  - May Supper on first day of Traditions Week in Hollow back of Ohio Union. (L:5/19/1942)
  - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake. Many sophomores pulled into lake. Part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/25/1942)
  - Commencement plans include "traditional" Senior Class Luncheon. To be in Physical Education Building or beside Mirror Lake. (L: 5/29/1942) Lantern published no later report; it ceased publication for the year before Commencement.
  - Browning officers installed in Amphitheater. (L: 6/l/1942) Browning Society play in Amphitheater on June 13. On Alumni Day schedule. (L: 6/4/1942)
1943 - Bucket & Dipper to initiate in March because many men leaving for military service. Initiates will be dunked on March 11, weather permitting. (L: 3/10/1943) Initiates revolted. (L: 3/11/1943) No indication that any initiates were actually ducked.
  - Sphinx will hold initiation ritual at Mirror Lake (L: 3/12/1943).
  - Romophos to initiate 20 men. "Because of the extreme temperatures the usual plunge into Mirror Lake ... will be eliminated this year." (L: 5/8/1943)
  - Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 19. Another scheduled for May 26. (L: 5/24/1943)
  - Mirrors ceremony to initiate 36 at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/17/1943)
  - May Supper, part of Traditions Week, scheduled for Hollow (L: 5/17/1943) but moved to Stadium on account of rain. (L: 5/24/1943)
  - Browning Society play given in Amphitheater on June 4 & 5. (L: 6/7/1943)
  - Lantern pointed out to freshmen that Mirror Lake very popular in early fall and spring. In winter, popular for skating for a few weeks. (L: 9/22/1943)
  - Campus policeman on rounds at night encounters soldiers and their girls at Mirror Lake "enjoying one of the loveliest sights on campus" (L: 10/21/1943).
1944 - Series of four Twilight Concerts in Hollow announced beginning May 3. (L: 4/28/1944)
  - Mirrors initiated 36 new members at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/15/1944)
  - May Supper scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow tonight. A sell-out. (L: 5/15/1944)
  - Tug-of-War tomorrow at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/16/1944) Part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/10/1944)
  - Bucket & Dipper tossed 8 initiates into lake. (L: 5/19/1944)
  - Mortar Board held initiation in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/18/1944) Part of Traditions Week. (L: 5/10/1944)
  - Browning Society play in Amphitheater on May 26 & 27 (L:5/26/1944).
1945 - For 16th season, series of weekly Twilight Concerts set for Mirror Lake Hollow starting May 2. (L: 4/30/1945)
  - May Supper (part of Traditions Week) to be held in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 4/25 & 5/14/1945)
  - Tug-of-War on bank of Mirror Lake, not across it. Open to all. (L: 5/15/1945) Part of Traditions Week. (L: 4/25/1945)
  - Mirrors initiated 33 new members. Part of ceremony on north shore of Mirror Lake. (L: 5/15/1945) Part of Traditions Week. (L: 4/25/1945)
  - Greased pig race at Mirror Lake on May 18. (L: 5/17/1945)
  - Bucket & Dipper ducked seven initiates. (L: 5/17/1945) Part of Traditions Week. (L: 4/25/1945)
  - Sphinx initiation ceremony included march from Sun Dial to Mirror Lake. (L: 5/18/1945) Part of Traditions Week (L: 4/25/1945).
  - Links initiation and picnic in Hollow. (L: 5/25/1945)
  - Browning Society play on June I & 2, preceded by torchlight parade to Amphitheater. (L: 5/28/1945)
  - Browning Society initiation in Amphitheater on June 2 (L:5/24/1945).
  - Legend: If coin is dropped in Wishing Well [Memorial Fountain] with a wish, the wish will come true. (L: 11/28/1945)
1946 - Links initiation in Hollow tomorrow. (L: 5/5/1946)
  - Twilight Concerts to begin May 8. (L: 4/30/1946)
  - May Week Supper in Hollow on May 13. (L: 5/8/1946) 953 tickets sold. (L: 5/10/1946)
  - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake on May 13 as part of May Week. (L: 5/10 & 5/13/1946)
  - May Week (Traditions Week) program includes:
  1. Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake on May 15
  2. Twilight Concert in Hollow on May 15
  3. Bucket & Dipper splashing on May 16 (L: 3/l/1946)
  - Mortar Board initiation partly at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/15/1946)
  - Tug-of-War at Mirror Lake on north shore, not across lake. Losers pushed or tossed into lake. (L: 5/16/1946)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates thrown into lake. (L: 5/16/1946)
  - Sphinx initiates to Mirror Lake. (L: 5/17/1946)
  - Browning Society play in Amphitheater on May 31 & June 1 (L:5/21/1946).
1947 - Weekly Twilight Concerts on May 7 starts 18th season (L: 4/22/1947). "Capacity audience" at first concert on May 7; 1500 at concert on May 14. (L: 5/8 & 15/1947)
  - Links formal initiation held at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/16/1947) Part of May Week. (L: 5/9/1947)
  - Tug-of-War scheduled for May 12 as part of May Week (L:5/9/1947). Won by sophomores. A few losers ducked in lake (L:5/13/1947).
  - Mirrors initiated 38 girls on edge of Mirror Lake. (L: 5/12/1947)
  - May Week Supper attended by 1200. (L: 5/13/1947) Was scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow as part of May Week program (L: 5/9/1947).
  - Mortar Board formal initiation at Mirror Lake today. (L: 5/15/1947)
  - Sphinx linked 17 members. To Mirror Lake for part of ceremony. (L: 5/16/1947)
  - Bucket & Dipper new members ducked in lake. (L: 5/16/1947)
  - Browning Society play to be on May 29 & 31. (L: 5/9/1947)
  - An 80 year old man has been taking coins out of Mirror Lake Fountain for 6 years. Sometimes kids get there first, and he gets nothing. (L: 10/20/1947)
1948 - May Supper scheduled for Mirror Lake Hollow as part of May Week (L:5/3/1948).
  - Skating at Mirror Lake after 6:30 p.m. Music provided. (L: 1/16/1948)
  - Mirrors initiation at noon today at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/10/1948)
  - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake on May 10. (L: 5/7/1948) Part of May Week schedule. (L: 5/3/1948)
  - Links initiation today at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/12/1948) Part of May Week program. (L: 5/3/1948)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates "dumped into Mirror Lake" yesterday. (L: 5/13/1948)
  - Mortar Board to hold initiation at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/13/1948)
  - Jazz Forum held in Browning Amphitheater on May 13. (L: 5/14/1948) Part of May Week program. (L: 5/3/1948)
  - Fourth Twilight Concert of the season held in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 19. Others scheduled on May 26 & 27. (L: 5/17/1948)
  - Sphinx ceremony at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/21/1948)
  - Browning Society play scheduled in Amphitheater on June 4 & 5. (L: 4/9/1948)
  - Three summer Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow scheduled starting July 7. (L: 7/6/1948)
  - Sailing Club organized last fall. Launched dinghy in Mirror Lake last night. (L:9/30/1948) This was practice for later regatta at Buckeye Lake. (L:10/7/1948)
1949 - Twentieth season of Twilight Concerts in Hollow began May 4 (L:5/3/1949) and ended on May 26. (L: 5/27/1949)
  - May Supper (part of May Week) scheduled for Mirror Lake Hollow on May 4. (L: 4/27 & 5/2/1949) Moved to Oval on account of conflict with Twilight Concert in Hollow. (L: 5/3/1949)
  - Tug-of-War scheduled at Mirror Lake for May 4 as part of May Week. Lake to be tinted green for the occasion. (L: 4/29 &5/2/1949)
  - Mirrors initiated 32 at Mirror Lake (L:5/4/1949).
  - Bucket & dipper ducked initiates (L:5/6/1949). Part of May Week schedule (L:5/2/1949)
  - Mortar Board initiation at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/6/1949) Part of May Week schedule. (L: 5/2/1949)
  - Links initiates 29 in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/6/1949)
  - Ducks reported on lake. (L: 5/24/1949)
  - Summer Vesper Services scheduled each Sunday evening in Browning Amphitheater. Sponsored by various religious and social organizations. (L:6/23/1949)
  - Concerts by Summer Chorus & Band in Mirror Lake Hollow scheduled on July 6 and 13. (L: 6/30/1949) Attendance on July 13 was 2000. (L: 7/14/1949)
The 1950's    
1950 - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake on May 2 as part of May Week. (L:4/24/1950) Older members led initiates down the walk to Mirror Lake Hollow for initiation at side of lake (L: 5/3/1950).
  - Series of six Twilight Concerts in Hollow begins on May 10 (L: 4/28/1950) Last concert June 8. (L: 6/l/1950)
  - May Week Supper moved to Oval. (L: 5/2/1950)
  - Links initiation held in Mirror Lake Hollow in spite of rain. (L: 5/3/1950) Part of May Week program. (L: 4/28/1950)
  - Tug-of-War to be in "Mirror Lake Hollow" today. (L: 5/4/1950) Part of May Week program. (L: 4/28/1950)
  - Sphinx & Mortar Board to hold joint ceremony on May 5. Will go to Mirror Lake for initiations. (L: 5/4/1950) Part of May Week. (L: 4/28/1950)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates ducked in lake yesterday. (L: 5/4/1950)
  - Browning Society play to be given in Amphitheater on June 2 & 3. (L:5/26/1950)
  - University Summer Chorus gave concert in Mirror Lake Hollow on July 19. Large audience. (L: 7/28/1950)
1951 - May Week involved "dorm raids" and "mass Mirror Lake dunking."
  - Conference called by Vice President Stradley in April 1952 in effort to avoid recurrence. (L: 4/14/1952)
  - Series of band concerts in Hollow to begin on May 3. (L: 5/l/1951)
  - "Musical Panorama" in Hollow on May 6, part of May Week (L: 5/7/1951)
  - Tug-of-War scheduled at Mirror Lake on May 5 as part of May Week. (L:5/3/1951)
  - Activities Board and Women's Glee Club performed in Hollow last night as part of May Week. (L: 5/7/1951)
  - Mirrors initiation ceremony at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/7/1951)
  - Bucket & Dipper will duck 20 initiates. (L: 5/8/1951) Sphinx conducted part of initiation at Wishing Well. (L: 5/9/1951)
  - Browning Society play in Amphitheater on June 1 & 2. (L: 6/l/1951)
  - First summer Twilight Concert in Mirror Lake Hollow on July 11. (L:7/13/1951)
  - Johnny Jones, long-time Columbus Dispatch writer, reminisced about Mirror Lake. He recalled earlier ducking of freshmen and then listed the following people currently (in 1951) subject to ducking:
  1. Bucket & Dipper initiates
  2. Fraternity neophytes
  3. Engaged couples
  4. Football players
  5. Unwary co-eds
  6. Tug-of-War losers
  7. An occasional prof

He concluded with this observation:

"It is said that a co-ed has not really been to the University unless she has been kissed in Mirror Lake Hollow to the accompaniment of twelve strokes of Orton Hall's chimes" (L:7/20/1951).

1952 - May Week preceded by conferences with Vice President Stradley and President Bevis in effort to avoid massive Mirror Lake ducking and other excesses that were prevalent in 1951 (L:4/14, 4/21 & 4/22/1952). Supported editorially by Lantern (L:4/18/1952).
  - "Kick-off Rally" for May Queen election in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 5. Ten candidates will present stunts. (L: 5/5/1952)
  - May Week "kick-off" parade from Zeta Beta Tau house to Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/6/1952)
  - Tug-of-War across lake on May 7. (L: 5/8/1952) Part of May Week. (L:4/28/1952)
  - Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow scheduled for five dates in May. (L: 5/6/1952) Another on July 16. (L: 7/11/1952)
  - Mirrors initiated 30 at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/6/1952)
  - Delta Gamma won canoe race on Mirror Lake. (L: 5/8/1952) Race, which was part of May Week, was without paddles. (L: 5/l/1952)
  - Bucket & Dipper dunked 20 initiates in Mirror Lake. (L: 5/8/1952)
  - Sphinx tapped 16 and Mortar Board, 20. Marched together to Mirror Lake for ceremonies. (L: 5/9/1952)
  - Browning Society play on May 23, 24, & 25 in Browning Amphitheater. (L:5/19/1952) Extra performance scheduled for May 26. (L: 5/26/1952)
1953 - May Week "kick-off" rally in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 4. Preceded by march through University District led by band. (L: 5/4/1953)
  - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake at noon. (L: 5/5/1953) Part of May Week. (L: 5/l/1953)
  - Band concerts in Hollow May 6, 13, 27 & 28. (L: 5/7, 5/11 & 5/25/1953) Crowd of 300 on May 28 one of largest of the year. (L: 5/29/1953)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates will swim to middle of lake (L: 5/7/1953) Part of May Week. (L: 5/l/1953)
  - Sphinx & Mortar Board marched together to Mirror Lake for ceremonies. (L: 5/8/1953) Part of May Week. (L: 5/l/1953)
  - Browning Society play in Amphitheater on May 29, 30 & 31. (L: 5/28/1953)
  - Browning Society initiation in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/29/1953)
  - "Pinning" of coeds a spring custom. A swim in the lake follows for some men and a few women. (L: 6/l/1953)
  - At least 10 Phi Mu Delta seniors dunked in lake. (L: 6/2/1953)
1954 - Tug-of-War across Mirror Lake on May 5 as part of May Week (L: 5/5/1954).
  - Weekly Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow begin May 5. Total of six in series. (L: 5/3/1954)
  - Mirrors held traditional ceremony at lake. (L: 5/11/1954)
  - May Supper scheduled for Mirror Lake Hollow on May 12. (L: 4/15/1954)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates dunked in lake. (L: 5/13/1954)
  - Sphinx & Mortar Board held "traditional ceremonies." Probably at Mirror Lake, but not so stated. (L: 5/14/1954)
  - Browning Society inducted new officers and new members at Browning Amphitheater on May 22. (L: 5/27/1954)
  - Browning Society play at Amphitheater on May 22 & 23(L:5/21/1954). Each performance to be preceded by a torch parade. (L: 4/12/1954)
  - Two summer Twilight Concerts, July 14 & 21. (L: 7/8/1954)
  - Three summer music festivals in Hollow as part of Summer Music Festival and Workshop for high school students. (L: 6/25/1954)
  - Three 12-year olds seen swimming in Mirror Lake for the sixth time this summer. (L: 8/12/1954)
1955 - Feature article on Mirror Lake lists the following as subject to dunking:
  1. Honorary initiates
  2. Fraternity seniors
  3. Pinned or engaged couples
  4. Any willing soul (L: 2/15/1955)
  - Dunking season has begun. Pledges, engaged persons, and students with 4 points have been vulnerable in past. Recently, "spontaneous dunking" is in vogue. (L: 4/18/1955)
  - Series of Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow begins May 4. (L: 5/3/1955)
  - Tug-of-War (part of May Week) at Mirror Lake on May 11 (L:5/11/1955). Many unwilling coed spectators thrown into lake (L:5/13/1955).
  - May Week Supper in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 12 (L:5/12 & 5/13/1955). Served 5400.
  - Letter to editor of Lantern calls duckings stupid (L:5/17/1955).
  - Mortar Board initiation in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/13/1955)
  - Browning Society play opens May 20. (L: 5/20/1955)
  - National Inter-collegiate Band Concert in Mirror Lake Hollow on August 7. (L:8/4/1955)
1956 - Browning Society will not present a play this year, thus breaking a precedent set in 1908. (L: 2/2/1956)
  - May Supper (part of May Week) scheduled for Mirror Lake Hollow driven to Stadium by rain. (L: 4/23 & 5/11/1956)
  - Makio staff members took "traditional midnight dip in Mirror Lake" (L:5/2/1956).
  - Picture of Tug-of-War at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/7/1956)
  - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake at noon. (L: 5/8/1956)
  - Lantern editorial says that it is traditional "to christen lovely coeds in Mirror Lake." (L: 5/9/1956)
  - Bucket & Dipper ceremonies at Bucket & Dipper Rock on north shore of lake. (L: 5/9/1956)
  - Twilight Concerts scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow on four dates in May. (L: 4/23/1956) Crowd of 2000 on May 9. (L: 5/10/1956)
  - Mortar Board initiation to be at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/11/1956)
  - Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow scheduled for July 11 & 18 (L:7/6/1956).
1957 - Council on Student Affairs announced that dunking in Mirror Lake was "off limits" to all except Bucket & Dipper and Romophos. Penalty--suspension from the University. (L: 4/5/1957) Dean of Men Mylin Ross observed that many high school students and adults were offenders, and advised that girls avoid the lake area for fear of dunking. (L: 4/24/1957)
  - Three Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow in May. Concert on May 8 part of May Week. (L: 5/6/1957)
  - Lantern editor, business manager, assistant business manager, and photo editor "dunked" in mud in Mirror Lake, which had been emptied for cleaning. (L:4/19/1957)
  - Mirrors initiation ceremony at Mirror Lake. Each initiate led to edge of lake and peered at her reflection in the lake (L: 5/7/1957)
  - Bucket & Dipper ceremony at Bucket & Dipper rock at side of lake. Initiates dunked. (L: 5/8/1957)
1958 - Duck appeared on Mirror Lake. Fed by students. (L: 3/7/1958)
  - May Week dunkings banned by Women's Student Government Association. (L: 5/2/1958)
  - Student Senate passed resolution condemning unauthorized mob dunking parties at Mirror Lake or the Olentangy River (L: 5/2/1958).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates to kiss the Bucket & Dipper rock at Mirror Lake and then be tossed into lake. (L: 5/6/1958) Part of May Week. (L: 5/5/1958)
  - May Week Musicale to be in Mirror Lake Amphitheater. Performance by Concert Band. Three other concerts later in May and early June. (L: 5/6/1958)
1959 - Twilight Concert scheduled in Hollow during May Week (L:5/4/1959). Last Twilight Concert of the season on June 3 (L: 6/2/1959).
  - Mirrors initiation in Hollow during May Week. (L: 5/4/1959) Procession down Long Walk and then to lake. Each girl to get pin and then proceed to edge of lake to see her reflection. (L: 5/5/1959)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates will be tossed into lake (L: 5/4/1959).
  - Lantern condemns mass dunkings in Mirror Lake. (L: 5/4/1959)
  - Mortar Board initiation at Amphitheater. (L: 5/11/1959) Part of May Week. (L: 5/4/1959)
  - Sphinx ceremonies included speech at Mirror Lake by last year's president. (L: 5/11/1959) Part of May Week. (L: 5/4/1959)
  - Last summer Twilight Concert in Mirror Lake Hollow on July 22 (L: 7/16/1959).
  - "The quiet serenity of Mirror Lake is a welcome change from the bustle of campus life... The blase student may sneer at tradition but who will ever forget...Mirror Lake at night..." (L: 9/25/1959).
The 1960's    
1960 - Dan Heinlin, Alumni secretary, recalls skateboards in slopes of Mirror Lake in the 1960's and 1970's.
  - Council on Student Affairs will contact organizations that have traditionally dunked their initiates to get their opinions on whether the practice should be continued. (L: 4/7/1960)
  - Mirrors to initiate 59 new members at Mirror Lake Hollow (L: 5/3/1960).
  - Five Twilight Concerts scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow in May and early June. (L: 5/3/1960)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates tossed into lake. (L: 5/4/1960)
1961 - Mirrors tapped 62. To be initiated at Mirror Lake (L: 5/l/1961).
  - Four Twilight Concerts scheduled in May, including one in May Week. (L: 5/2 & 5/3/1961)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiation to be at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/3/1961)
  - Sphinx initiates will march down Long Walk and then to Mirror Lake. (L: 5/4/1961)
  - "Mirror Lake Hollow, itself, abounds with more traditional events than any other landmark on campus." (L: 9/22/1961)
1962 - Picture in Lantern on February 13, 1962 showing two coeds sliding down hill at lake in some kind of rectangular skid.
  - Sphinx linked 9 members. Went to Wishing Well [Memorial Fountain] at Mirror Lake for ceremony. (L: 2/26/1962)
  - May Week picture shows one Bucket & Dipper initiate in Mirror Lake. (L:5/7/1962)
  - Lantern advised freshmen not to be afraid to walk in the Hollow, since freshmen were no longer dunked in lake. (L: 9/27/1962)
1963 - Picture of coed fishing in lake with string and no pole (L: 4/3/1963).
  - Mirrors initiation to be at Mirror Lake. (L: 4/29/1963)
  - May Fete schedule included musicale in Hollow. (L: 5/l/1963)
1964 - Engaged couple quarreled. Man threw engagement ring into lake. The next day the girl went into lake in bikini to search for ring. Apprehended by policeman. Executive Dean Bonner ruled that she could continue search, but not in a bikini. She found the ring. (L: 4/20/1964)
  - Mirrors initiation to be at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/4/1964) Picture of initiates looking at their reflections in lake (L: 5/5/1964)
  - Mortar Board initiation to be at lake during May Week (L: 5/4/1962).
  - Concert Band to play in Mirror Lake Hollow during May Week (L:5/5/1964). Other concerts on May 13 & 27 (L:5/13 & 5/15/1964).
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates subject to dunking. (L: 5/5/1964)
  - May Week Talent Show scheduled for Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/5/1964)
  - Sigma Phi Epsilon spring regatta postponed. Some 3000 students would have passed Mirror Lake on way to Field House. It was feared that some students would have been pushed into lake. (L: 5/6/1964)
  - Mortar Board ceremonies at Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/8/1964)
  - Greek tragedy to be presented in "little used" Browning Amphitheater by group of high school students participating in Summer Center for Communicative Acts. (L: 7/23 & 7/30/1964)
1965 - Sphinx linked 8 men. Part of ceremony at Mirror Lake (L: 2/25/1965).
  - Ban on "sidewalk surfing" (skateboards) lifted, but to be restricted to Mirror Lake Hollow at designated hours on certain days. (L: 4/12/1965)
  - Mirrors initiates to receive pins at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/3/1965)
  - Bucket & Dipper initiates to be thrown into lake. (L: 5/4/1965)
  - Sphinx and Mortar Board initiation ceremonies to be in Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/7/1965)
  - Two Twilight Concerts to be scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow (L: 5/14/1965).
  - Skateboard areas to be improved by widening of paths (L:7/13/1965).
1966 - Sphinx initiates will go to Mirror Lake. (L: 2/14/1966)
  - Front page picture in Lantern on April 28, 1966 with caption: "Mirror Lake ducks, others, enjoy calm spring evening."
  - Twilight Concert in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 18. (L: 5/16/1966)
1967 - Fifteen Bucket & Dipper initiates dunked in Mirror Lake (L: 5/3/1967). Bucket & Dipper is only group permitted to "dunk" in Mirror Lake. (L: 5/4/1967)
  - Picture of students lounging in Browning Amphitheater. Caption says they "have made a safe escape to the serene steps of Browning Amphitheatre, grabbing a few moments of relaxation...." (L: 9/27/1967)
  - Feature story on Browning Amphitheater. No longer used for drama. Spooning couples there on warm nights. (L: 10/12/1967)
1968 - Twilight Concerts scheduled on five dates in May. (L: 5/l/1968)
  - Mirrors initiation in Mirror Lake Hollow tomorrow. Also Bucket & Dipper initiates will be dunked and Sphinx will have ceremony at lake. All part of May Week. (L: 5/6/1968)
1969 - May Week activities include:
  1. Mirrors initiation at lake
  2. Mortar Board initiation in Browning Amphitheater
  3. Bucket & Dipper initiation including ceremony at Bucket & Dipper rock at lake
  4. Sphinx ceremonies including part at lake (L: 5/6/1969)
  - Students advised to stay away from lake at night unless accompanied by someone. (L: 8/7/1969)
  - Ducks disappeared from lake. Usually appear mysteriously each spring. (L:8/7/1969)
The 1970's    
1970 - Speech 221 classes held recently in Browning Amphitheater (L: 4/23/1970).
  - The Lantern on May 6, 1970 reported that May Week activities would proceed in spite of riots on campus. However, this turned out to be the last Lantern published before the University closed for two weeks.
1971 - One of two ducks at Mirror Lake found dead. (L: 3/l/1971)
  - Jazz Ensemble in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 5/27/1971)
  - No report of any May Week activities on campus. A senior wrote to the Lantern complaining about lack of coverage (L: 5/19/1971).
  - Final Twilight Concert, the fifth of the season, on June 2 (L: 6/2/1971).
  - Couple married in Mirror Lake Hollow on June 12, 1970 (L: 8/5/1971).
  - Pollution in lake has reduced use of the lake area for "anything other than a favorite sunbathing and necking spot for students" (L:9/29/1971).
1972 - Crowd of 100 watched launching of 400 pound concrete canoe on Mirror Lake. This was a project of students in Engineering, and they used the lake as a test site prior to a later intercollegiate contest elsewhere. (L: 4/14/1972)
1973 - Group of 100 spectators watched 15 Engineering students launch concrete canoe. (L: 4/20/1973)
  - Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow each Wednesday in May. (L: 5/8/1973)
  - Mirrors ceremony at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/15/1973)
  - Second Annual "Wallow in Hollow" near Mirror Lake. Three bands will play rock music at Amphitheater. Sponsored by Ohio Union to raise money to help blind. (L: 5/16/1973)
  - Department of Dance to perform at Amphitheater "to reacquaint people with the Mirror Lake area." (L: 5/17/1973)
1974 - Mortar Board initiation in Mirror Lake Hollow. (L: 4/5/1974)
  - Series of five Twilight Concerts in Mirror Lake Hollow in May. (L: 5/l/1974)
  - May Week schedule includes three-hour "movie orgy at the Hollow Amphitheater by Mirror Lake" and a Rock Concert at the Amphitheater. (L: 5/6/1974)
  - Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/6/1974)
1975 - No references noted.
1976 - Three concerts by University Concert Band scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow in May and June. (L: 5/5/1976)
  - University Scarlet Band and Scarlet & Grey Band to present concert in Hollow on May 12. (L: 5/12/1976)
  - Jazz Ensemble will play four concerts in Hollow. (L: 5/12/1976)
  - "Mini-Olyrnpics" on South Oval west of the Ohio Union (L: 5/14/1976).
  - Mortar Board induction ceremony at Mirror Lake. (L: 5/21/1976)
1977 - Five Twilight Concerts scheduled in Mirror Lake Hollow (L: 5/6/1977).
  - Renaissance Festival concentrated in area between Mirror Lake and Ohio Union. (L: 5/16/1977)
  - Picture of duck on Mirror Lake. (L: 5/18/1977)
  - Mortar Board initiation at Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/20/1977)
1978 - Fourth Annual Renaissance Festival planned for South Oval--around Mirror Lake & Amphitheater and Ohio Union (L: 4/12/1978).
  - Musical activities in Mirror Lake Hollow include Twilight Concerts on three dates in May, second annual "Ohio State free concert" (Rock & Roll) on May 21, and OSU Jazz Ensemble on May 19. (L: 5/3, 5/13, 5/15, & 5/19/1978)
  - Mortar Board ceremony at Browning Amphitheater. (L: 5/25/1978)
1979 - Two students paddled rubber boat through jet fountain in middle of lake. (L: 4/24/1979)
  - Band concerts in Hollow on May 3, 10, & 17. (L: 5/3, 5/10, & 5/17/1979) Jazz Combo on May 31. (L: 5/31/1979)
  - Concrete canoe tested on Mirror Lake. (L: 5/11/1979)
  - Mirror Lake weddings popular. (L: 5/18/1979)
  - OSU Jazz Combo in Mirror Lake Hollow on May 31. (L: 5/31/1979)
  - Dog jumped into Mirror Lake and attacked duck. Injured duck taken to Veterinary Clinic. (L: 8/3/1979)
  - 15,000 attended Renaissance Festival on South Oval (L: 5/8/1980).
The 1980's    
1980 - Medieval and Renaissance Festival to be on South Oval. (L: 5/8/1980)
  - Picture of lone student sitting on wall on south side of Mirror Lake at night "reflecting on rigors of finals week" (L:8/29/1980).
1981 - Browning Amphitheater little used except for weddings and concerts. (L:4/21/1981)
1982 - Medieval and Renaissance Festival to be on South Oval (L: 5/4/1982). Schedule lists activities at Browning Amphitheater and eastward to Ohio Union. (L: 5/7/1982)
  - OSU police and Humane Society rescue duck on lake which had been shot with arrow. (L: 11/30/1982)
1983 - Renaissance Festival activities scheduled on South Oval--Browning Amphitheater and eastward. (L: 5/7/1983)
  - Twenty weddings per year in Hollow, according to Campus Planner Jean Hansford.
  - Mortar Board ceremony in Mirror Lake Hollow. President Jennings initiated. (M 74: 6 July-Aug 1983)
1984 - Concert scheduled at Mirror Lake tonight in connection with annual conference of American Society of University Composers. Will be forced inside on account of rain. (Radio announcement, WOSU-FM, 4/5/1984)
  - About 40 students studying around the lake and in the amphitheater at 9:30 a.m. on April 26. (Personal observation)
  - Medieval & Renaissance Festival scheduled for May 5 in Hollow from Mirror Lake to Ohio Union forced inside by weather. (Jack Cooley)
  - OSU Jazz Workshop in Hollow on May 10. Sponsored by Ohio Staters, Inc. (Ohio Stater Office)
  - OSU Jazz Ensemble at Mirror Lake on May 17 (Columbus Dispatch, 5/13/1984).
  - Front page picture of Mirrors initiation at Mirror Lake on May 16 (L:5/17/1984).


[1] Herrick, OSU Campus Master Plans. (Columbus): Office of Campus Planning and Space Utilization, The Ohio State University, 1982. Exhibit G-1.

[2] Caldwell, J.A. and Gould, H.T., Caldwell's Atlas of Franklin County and the City of Columbus Ohio. Columbus: J.A. Caldwell and H.T. Gould, 872.

[3] All of the lake outlines in Figure 2 through 6 are shown at the same approximate scale.

[4] Bradford came to Columbus in 1873, the year the University opened, and entered the University as a student in 1877. He became an instructor in drawing in 1882, and graduated in mechanical engineering in 1883. He became University Architect in 1911, and continued to serve on the faculty until his retirement in 1933. Thus, he was in a position to recall the lake in the 1870's and 1880's, but not necessarily to recall details of size and shape. It is possible that he worked from old maps or other records, but this is not known to be the case.

[5] Building 052, erected in 1895-96 and demolished in 1976.

[6] R 1895-96: p. 20

[7] Cope: 427, Note 25

[8] For a more detailed discussion of this problem, see p. 9 ff

[9] The dots on Figures 3 through 7 mark the approximate location of the spring.

[10] See page 2 for other names.

[11] R 1880:103

[12] R 1887:14

[13] An altered version of this photograph appears after page 38 in Cope.

[14] The Lantern record is obviously incomplete, for a variety of reasons. There was no Lantern before 1881, and in its early years the Lantern was a literary magazine that paid scant attention to campus news. In later years, after the literary cloak had been discarded in favor of news, coverage of campus events was quite complete, but usually dropped off at the end of each semester or quarter, when examinations and changes in Lantern staff interrupted.

As the University grew in size and complexity, the Lantern had to cover a greater diversity of events over a larger area, and its coverage of events at the lake and in the Hollow was diluted. The increasing coverage of local, state and national news beginning in the late 1940's resulted in less complete coverage of all campus news, and the campus riots of the late 1960's and early 1970's brought an almost total eclipse of traditional campus events.

In spite of these shortcomings, the pages of the Lantern provide a good overview of the major happenings over the years at the spring, around the lake, and in the Hollow.

[15] In this and succeeding paragraphs, sources will generally not be indicated. However, unless otherwise indicated, the source will be the Lantern. See Appendix B for exact reference.